Solved Model Question Paper for Class12th Political Science (2023) NCERT/CBSE

Solved Model Question Paper for Class12th Political Science (2023) NCERT/CBSE

Question:  Briefly describe the hegemony of the USA as a soft power. 4 Marks 

Answer: 1. Hegemony of the United States as a soft power refers to its influence in global politics and culture through its political, economic, and cultural values.

2. The United States is widely seen as a leader in the international community, and its influence can be seen in the ideas, policies, and institutions that shape international relations.

3. The United States uses its soft power to encourage other countries to adopt its beliefs, values, and goals. This includes the promotion of democracy, human rights, and rule of law.

4. The United States also uses its soft power to promote its economic and technological prowess, as well as its culture and entertainment. Soft power also allows the United States to shape global discourse, as it can use its influence to shape the narrative around certain issues.

Question:  Instead of opting for Shock Therapy, China pioneered a new path in adopting a  market economy. Was it a success? Comment 4 Marks 

Answer: Yes, China’s adoption of a market economy has been a success. Since the shift began in 1978, the country’s economy has grown rapidly, and it is now the second-largest economy in the world. Reforms such as introducing private enterprise, liberalizing prices, and increasing foreign investment have all contributed to China’s economic success.

Question: Explain the main causes of ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. 4 Marks 

Answer: The main causes of ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka are rooted in its history of colonial rule. During British rule in the 19th century, the majority Sinhalese population was marginalized in favour of the minority Tamil population. This led to the Sinhalese feeling discriminated against and resentful towards the Tamils. In the post-independence period, the Sinhalese majority government enacted policies that further alienated the Tamil minority. These included language and education policies that favoured Sinhalese and the introduction of citizenship laws that excluded Tamils from certain rights and benefits. In the late 1970s, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) began an armed struggle against the Sri Lankan government, which led to decades of violent conflict. This conflict was largely driven by the Tamil minority’s sense of discrimination and marginalization, and the LTTE’s demand for a separate Tamil state. The civil war ended in 2009, but tensions between the two communities remain. The lack of meaningful progress in addressing the underlying grievances of the Tamil minority has led to ongoing tensions and sporadic violence.

Question: What has been India’s stand on UN reformation? 4 Marks 

Answer: India has long called for the reform of the United Nations, including the expansion of the Security Council. India has also been advocating for a permanent seat on the Security Council to reflect its position as a major global power. India is of the view that the United Nations should be made more representative, democratic, transparent, accountable and effective to meet the challenges of the 21st century. India has also advocated for a greater role for the United Nations in the maintenance of international peace and security.

Question: What do you understand by sustainable development? What was the outcome of  the Rio summit? 4 Marks 

Answer: Sustainable development is a concept that calls for the development of strategies and policies that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is based on the idea of creating a balance between economic growth, social progress, and environmental protection.

The outcome of the Rio summit was the adoption of Agenda 21. This is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the United Nations system, governments, and major groups in every area in which human impacts the environment.

Question: Define Nation building.What was Nehru’s approach to nation-building?   4 Marks

Answer: Nation-building is the process of constructing or structuring a national identity using the power of the state. It involves the use of state power to shape national identity, often by creating a common culture, language, and sense of unity among citizens.

Nehru’s approach to nation-building was to focus on modernizing India and creating a secular, democratic nation-state. He sought to create a unified nation by emphasizing India’s diverse religious and cultural heritage. He also encouraged the growth of science and technology and championed the cause of universal education. Finally, he sought to strengthen India’s international position by developing ties with other countries and participating in international organizations.

Question: What do you understand by Green Revolution? What were its effects? 4 marks 

Answer: The Green Revolution was a period of increased agricultural production from the 1950s to the 1970s, largely due to the introduction of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, the expansion of irrigation infrastructure, and the use of modern agricultural technologies. It was developed by Norman Borlaug and other agronomists and was mainly concentrated in the developing countries of Asia and Latin America.

The effects of the Green Revolution were varied and significant. It led to a dramatic increase in crop yields and food production, especially in developing countries, improving nutrition and alleviating hunger. It also had positive effects on rural communities, reducing poverty and increasing the incomes of farmers.

Question: What is CTBT? Do you think India’s response to CTBT is genuine? 4 marks 

Answer: The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments. The treaty was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1996 but has not yet entered into force.

India’s response to the CTBT has been mixed. On the one hand, India has indicated its willingness to sign and ratify the CTBT and has even called for a global moratorium on nuclear testing. On the other hand, India has yet to sign the treaty and has refused to do so until the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, who are also the five recognized nuclear-weapon states under the Non-Proliferation Treaty, have done so. This indicates that India’s response to the CTBT is not necessarily genuine, as it continues to insist on conditions that are not part of the treaty.

Question: What do you understand by the slogan of ‘Garibi Hatoa’? Was it successful?  4 Marks  

Answer: Garibi Hatoa is an Indian slogan which translates to “Remove Poverty”. It was a slogan of the Indian National Congress during the 1980s and was part of the party’s campaign to improve the well-being of the poor and reduce inequality. The slogan was used to mobilize public support for the party and to create awareness about poverty and social injustice. The slogan was successful in raising awareness about poverty and inequality, but it was not particularly successful in actually reducing poverty in India. Poverty levels in India have remained relatively constant over the past few decades and have only begun to decline in the past few years. The government has implemented various economic reforms and social welfare programs to reduce poverty, but these have had limited success.

Question: How does article 370 reflect the special status of J&K? What kind of reactions has  article 370 given rise to? 4 Marks  

Answer: Article 370 of the Indian Constitution grants special autonomous status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It gives the state its constitution, a separate flag and autonomy over the internal administration of the state. It also restricts the applicability of other provisions of the Indian Constitution to Jammu and Kashmir. Article 370 has been a source of debate and controversy in India. Supporters of the article argue that it preserves the cultural and political identity of the state and that its removal would further alienate the people of Jammu and Kashmir from India.

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