Solved Model Question Paper for Class 12th Political Science (2023) NCERT/CBSE
Long Answer Type (200 -250 words)
Question 1: The emergence of two power blocs was a superpower rivalry. Discuss? 6 Marks
Answer: The emergence of two power blocs was a result of superpower rivalry, which began after the Second World War when the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the two global superpowers. This rivalry, known as the Cold War, was characterized by competition for ideological, military, and economic supremacy between the two powers. This competition saw the two blocs, the United States-led NATO and the Soviet Union-led Warsaw Pact, emerge as the two major geopolitical forces in the world. The rivalry between the two blocs was manifested in the establishment of military alliances, the deployment of forces, proxy wars, and espionage. As such, the emergence of two power blocs was a direct result of superpower rivalry.
Question 2: What do you mean by Bipolarity? Assess the new world order which emerged after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Answer: Bipolarity refers to a geopolitical system in which two large powers are in a state of constant competition and rivalry. This system was in place during the Cold War, with the United States and the Soviet Union as the two major powers. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 marked the end of the Cold War and the end of bipolarity. Since then, the world has seen a shift towards a more multipolar system, with multiple powers competing on the international stage. This has led to a more complex and dynamic international environment, with the emergence of new powers such as China, India, and Brazil. The new order has been characterized by increased globalization and interconnectivity, with the emergence of new technologies, increased trade, and increased migration. The end of the Cold War has also brought about greater instability and conflict in some parts of the world, as well as a greater proliferation of nuclear weapons. The world has also become more divided, with increasing inequality between the rich and the poor. Despite these challenges, the world has become more interconnected and open, allowing for more opportunities for individuals and businesses to thrive.
Question 3: Critically examine India’s relations with Russia? 6 Marks
Answer: India’s relationship with Russia has been one of the longest, strongest and most enduring relationships in India’s foreign policy. The two countries enjoy a strong partnership with Russia being India’s most important strategic partner.
India and Russia have extensive economic, military and cultural ties and share a common stance on many regional and global issues. This strategic partnership is based on mutual trust, understanding and support.
India and Russia have had a long history of cooperation since the 1950s when the two countries signed the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. This treaty was signed for mutual assistance and support in the event of a threat to either country’s security. This treaty is still in force today and serves as the foundation of the India-Russia relationship. Since then, the two countries have developed several bilateral agreements in the fields of defence, trade, technology and culture. In the defence sector, Russia has been the largest supplier of military equipment to India. It has provided India with aircraft, helicopters, missiles, tanks and other defence equipment. In the economic sector, India and Russia have been actively involved in various bilateral and multilateral trade initiatives. India has also been engaged in various joint ventures with Russian companies for the development of infrastructure and other projects. The two countries have also been involved in various cultural exchanges. Educational and cultural exchange programs are regularly held between the two countries. There is also a high level of people-to-people contact between the two countries. Overall, India and Russia share a strong partnership based on mutual trust and understanding. This partnership is expected to further deepen in the future as both countries look to collaborate in various areas such as energy, defence and trade.
Question 4: ‘The Congress party had inherited the legacy of the National Movement.’ Prove the validity of this statement in the light of electoral results of the first three general elections. 6 Marks
Answer: The validity of the statement that the Congress party had inherited the legacy of the National Movement can be seen in the electoral results of the first three general elections in India. In the first general election in 1951-52, the Indian National Congress (INC) won 364 out of 489 seats, and the party’s leader, Jawaharlal Nehru, was elected as the first Prime Minister of India.
In the second general election in 1957, the INC won 371 out of 494 seats and was able to form a government with Nehru as the Prime Minister. In the third general election in 1962, the INC was able to win 361 out of 494 seats and again formed the government with Nehru as the Prime Minister. The consistent success of the Congress party in the first three general elections is an indication of the party’s strong association with the National Movement.
The party’s performance in the first three general elections reflects the public’s faith in the Congress party and its commitment to the ideals of the National Movement. Thus, the statement that the Congress party had inherited the legacy of the National Movement is valid.
Question 5: In the early years of independence opposition parties were left with very little room due to the rainbow the character of the Congress Party. Comment
Answer: The Rainbow Coalition of the Congress Party in India in the early years of independence left very little room for opposition parties. The Congress Party had a strong presence in the country with its network of leaders, which made it difficult for any opposition to gain power. The Congress Party also had the support of the majority of the population, as it was seen as the party that had led India to independence. This made it difficult for any other party to gain a foothold in the political system.
Question 6: Why did the government impose an emergency in 1975? Was it a necessary step to deal with the prevailing situation? Give reasons in support of your answer. 6 Marks
Answer: The government imposed an emergency in 1975 due to the deteriorating law and order situation in the country. Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister, had declared the emergency as a necessary step to deal with the prevailing situation. The reasons in support of this decision are as follows:
1. There was growing discontent among the people against the government. This was due to the violation of civil rights and the increasing number of strikes and demonstrations.
2. The country was facing a severe economic crisis. The annual growth rate had slowed down, unemployment was rising, and inflation was skyrocketing.
3. Terrorism had become rampant in some parts of the country. The government was unable to tackle the issue because of a lack of resources and personnel.
4. The government had to take drastic measures to tackle the situation. Emergency was the only option left by the government to restore order and stability in the country. Hence, it can be said that the imposition of emergency in 1975 was a necessary step to deal with the prevailing situation.
Question 7: Critically assess the role of Bihar and Gujarat movements in highlighting the loopholes of the Congress Government.
Answer: The Bihar and Gujarat Movements played an important role in highlighting the loopholes of the Congress Government in the early decades of independence. The movements, which began in 1974 and lasted until the late 1970s, exposed the Congress leadership’s failure to ensure proper implementation of the policies and programmes they had initiated in the name of economic development. The Bihar Movement was a protest against the government’s failure to implement an official programme on rural development, called the Bihar Rural Development Programme. This programme was intended to provide basic amenities such as roads, electricity, drinking water, and health care to rural areas. The protest highlighted the failure of the government to implement the programme properly and the lack of accountability for the funds allocated for it.
The Gujarat Movement, which began in 1975, was a protest against the government’s failure to implement the recommendations of the 20-Point Programme, which was a set of economic reforms designed to improve the standard of living of the poor in Gujarat. The protest highlighted the government’s failure to address the issues of poverty and unemployment, as well as its failure to provide basic amenities such as water, electricity, and health care to rural areas. Both the Bihar and Gujarat Movements highlighted the issues of corruption and mismanagement within the government and brought to light the failure of the Congress-led government to provide basic amenities and services to the people of India. The movements also helped to create a sense of solidarity among the people of India, which eventually led to the formation of a new political force, the Janata Party, which was formed as a result of the protests. Overall, the Bihar and Gujarat Movements played a significant role in highlighting the loopholes of the Congress Government and helped to bring about a greater sense of accountability and transparency in the functioning of the government.
Question 8: Examine the role of regional parties in coalition politics.
Answer: Regional parties play an important role in coalition politics, as they represent the interests of a particular region or state. By forming coalitions with national parties, regional parties can influence the formation of government at the national level and promote their regional interests. They are also able to shape the national agenda by forming coalitions and alliances with national parties. Regional parties often have a greater appeal in their regions, as they are more in tune with the needs and concerns of the people living in that region, whereas the national parties may have a more generalized view. This gives regional parties the ability to gain the support of their constituents and to act as a counterbalance to the national parties.
Question 9: Describe the formation and objective of UPA? 6 Marks
Answer: The United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is a coalition of political parties in India formed after the 2004 general election. It was formed at the initiative of the Indian National Congress (INC) and comprised several other left-leaning parties and regional parties.
The main objective of UPA is to provide a stable and progressive government that can take India to new heights of growth and development. The UPA also focuses on creating jobs, providing better healthcare, education, and infrastructure, and ensuring the safety and security of all citizens. Additionally, the UPA works to reduce poverty and promote social inclusion.