June 2022

Soil: Physical, Chemical, and Biological properties for Class 10th and 12th

Biological characteristics
Soil has a wide range of species. Bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and nematodes are the dominant organisms. The habitat of soil creatures includes gaps within a surface litter, cavities in soil aggregates, pore spaces inside individual soil particles, and root canals. These organisms get their food from living plants’ roots and organic substances found in the pore spaces. Mites are the most prevalent animals in the soil. The earthworms are a part of the wider fauna. Millipedes that feed on the litter’s surface break it down mechanically, making it more susceptible to fungus-induced decomposition. Millipedes eat mushrooms in the trash to survive. Along with millipedes, snails and slugs aid in the hydrolysis of lignins and even very indigestible cellulose. The breakdown of the cellulose in wood is caused by bigger occupants like termites and some dipterans. The fauna of tropical soil is dominated by termites.
The development of O and A layers is significantly influenced by soil organic matter, which results from biological processes during decomposition. Humus, a dark-coloured, chemically complex organic compound with distinctive components like fulvic acid and humic acid, is the portion of organic matter that survives after decomposition. Physical, chemical, and biological forces interact to generate two different forms of humus;
Mor: The organic layer is dense and clearly defined, sitting on mineral soil. Horizons O and A are distinct from one another. The primary decomposition organisms are fungi, which also create acid and reduce soil animal activity.
Mull: The mineral soil has a high level of organic content, and there is only a small covering of litter on the surface. There is a lot of animal activity. The O and A horizons don’t abruptly diverge. In this soil, bacteria are the primary decomposers.

Soil: Structure, Texture, Bulk Density, and Soil Temperature

Soil Texture
Sand, silt, and clay are the three types of soil-forming particles that are separated based on size. The biggest and smallest particles are made of clay and sand, respectively. A mixture of the three makes up the majority of soils. What gives soil its texture are the proportions of sand, silt, and clay. For instance, clay loam soil includes almost equal amounts of sand, sand, and clay.
Sand: 2.0 to 0.05 mm
Silt, from 0.05 to 0.002 mm
Clay Under 0.002 mm

Soil: Definitions, Functions, Formation, Soil Profiles, and Soil Development for Class 10th and 12th

Horizons of soil
There are various varieties of soil, and each has a unique set of qualities. Any soil that has been thoroughly dug up will reveal layers, or horizons (O, A, E, B, C, R). A soil profile is created when the horizons are combined. Each profile describes a soil’s life as a biography. The three main layers of most soils are A, B, and C, while some soils also include an organic horizon (O).
Horizons are the individual layers that makeup soil. Depending on their location and makeup, these strata are referred to as O, A, E, B, C, and R.

Suicide Tree: Classification, Characteristics, Extracts, and Toxicity

Plants are known to have anti-insect properties, including larvicidal properties, due to their chemical compounds. It was used as a homicide/suicide agent in India, with occasional accidental poisoning, notably among youngsters who mistook the fruit for food. According to Indian data, Cerbera odollam poisoning accounted for 50% of all plant-based poisoning incidents in Kerala, India between 1989 and 1999. C. odollam is a member of the Apocynaceae family, which includes yellow oleander (Thevetia sp.) and common oleander (Narium sp.). Both of them are toxic.
In the early nineteenth century, the first accurate descriptions of the toxin were written down (Gaillard et al., 2004). It is used by the Burmese for illumination, as a cosmetic, and as a pesticide or insect repellant when blended with other oils (Chopra et al., 1956). Guruswami et al. (1970) investigated the pharmacological effects of a crude ethanolic extract of C. odollam seed on 50 frogs’ hearts, finding that the predominant effect was to decrease the heart’s impulse-producing and conducing tissues. The leaves and bark are eaten in various areas for their cathartic qualities (Chopra et al., 1958).

Rosemary Plant: Taxonomical position, Geographical distribution, Characteristics, Chemical Composition, and Uses

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Family Lamiaceae) is an evergreen perennial shrub. It’s a Mediterranean plant that’s been developed as a common houseplant all around the world (Dong et al., 2012). Italy, Dalmatia, Spain, Greece, Turkey, Egypt, France, Portugal, and North Africa are the major producers (Svoboda and Deans, 1992). Rosemary essential oil is used as a spice for foods such as meat, salami, and sauces (Lo-Presti et al., 2005), but it is also utilized as an antioxidant (for food preservation), antibacterial, and antifungal agent against some spoilage organisms due to its chemical active components qualities (Rezzoug et al., 2005).