Economic Botany

Cynodon dactylon (Indian Doab): Classification Distribution Characteristics Chemical composition and Uses

Cynodon Dactylon (Doob grass) is considered sacred grass in India since it is used to feed sacred cows. Doob’s Sanskrit name is durva, which means “chopped or eaten by the animal.” The plants vilva, durva, and tulsi, which are revered by Lord Sankara, Ganesa, and Visnu, respectively, cure vata, pitta, and Kapha dosas. Hindus use the leaves durva to worship the God Ganesha. Since ancient times, this plant has been known for its cooling, haemostatic, diuretic, and tonic effects, as documented by Dhanvantari, Kaiyadeva, and Raja Nighantus. Durva comes in two varieties, white and green, according to Ayurvedic scriptures. Cynodon plant is a pungent, bitter, aromatic, hot, appetiser, vulnerary, anthelmintic, antipyretic, and alexiteric, according to Ayurveda, India’s traditional pharmacopoeia.

Urtica dioica (Soi): Classification, Characteristics, Chemical Constituents,  and Uses

Flavonoids, tannins, volatile chemicals and fatty acids, polysaccharides, isolectins, sterols, terpenes, protein, vitamins, and minerals are the primary chemical constituents of Urtica dioica. Acetylcholine, histamine, 5 hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), leukotrienes, and formic acid are the chemicals that cause the burning sensation in leaf trichomes. Kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin, isoquercitrin, astragalin, rutin, and their three rutinosides and three glycosides are the most common flavonoids. It has been discovered that shikimic acid derivatives such as phenylpropanes, caffeic acid, and different esters of this acid such as chlorogenic acid and caffeoyl malic acid exist. Carotene, hydroxycarotene, lutoxanthin, lutein epoxide, and violaxanthin are examples of carotenoids. Vitamins B, C, and K, as well as minerals such as calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium, are abundant in the leaves. Essential amino acids, glucokinnins, and high chlorophyll content are also present.

Lavatera kashmiriana: Distribution, Characteristics, Chemical constituents and Medicinal Uses

Lavatera Kashmiriana is a Kashmir Valley indigenous and endangered plant (Molur and Walker, 1998). It is a lovely, semi-evergreen, perennial tall mallow flowering Kashmiri plant that grows in humus-rich soils in meadows, shrubberies, and forest clearings (Ford, 1938; Sharma, 2003; Kaul, 1997; Vidyarthi, 2010). Roots as a laxative (Sharma, 2003), gastrointestinal problems and renal colic (Kaul, 2010), flowers for common cold and mumps, and seeds as an antiseptic. L. cachemiriana is a valuable ornamental and medicinal herb that was once only found in the Kashmir valley (Molur and Walker, 1998; Kaul, 1977), but is now distributed throughout the western Himalayas from Pakistan to Uttar Pradesh/Uttaranchal (Sharma, 2003; Kaul, 1977).

Kingcup (Caltha palustris): Distribution, Characteristics, Chemical composition and Uses

Caltha palustris can be found in all highlands of the Ukrainian Carpathians. It grows around damp channels and on the borders of ponds, wet meadows, lakes, wetlands, and swamps, as well as along rivers in slow-flowing and stagnant waters. The plant first appeared in gardens in Austria and southern Germany towards the end of the seventeenth century. It has become a prized garden plant among aficionados in Austria, Switzerland, Germany, England, and Holland. It has long been utilised for medical purposes in Ukraine.

Oxalis corniculata (Khati Buti): Classification, Distribution, Characteristics, Chemical constituents, and Ethnomedicinal Uses

Oxalis corniculata Linn. is found in Asia, Europe, North America, and Africa. It is a member of the Oxalidaceae family. It grows readily among human settlements, roadsides, gardens, and yards in practically all warmer sections of India, particularly in the Himalayas up to 2500 metres in elevation.
It is a delicate-looking, low-growing herbaceous plant found in wet gloomy locations, roadsides, plantations, lawns, and practically all regions throughout the warmer sections of India, especially in the Himalayas up to 8,000 feet altitude. (Hemant and colleagues, 2011)

Heartleaf Philodendron: Description, Characteristics, Cultivation, Propagation, Chemical Constituents, and Uses

Propagation of Philodendron species is commonly done via cutting and layering. During the growth season, try to propagate them. Where the leaves touch the stem, tiny brown nubs appear. These nubs will produce roots if they come into contact with soil or water. Cutting a branch just below a root nub and placing it in water with a few bits of horticultural charcoal to lessen the possibility of rot is one of the easiest ways to reproduce this plant. It is potted in rich soil as soon as new leaf development occurs. Hairpins or bent wire can also be used to pin vines to the earth at the root nub. In a relatively short period, the root nub that comes into contact with the earth sprouts new roots. Misting multiple times a day can substantially benefit the plant once the various sections of the Philodendron species are rooted.

Money Plant (Epipremnum aureum): Classification, Characteristics, and Medicinal Uses

Epipremnum aureum, also known as the money plant in Asian nations, is a member of the Araceae family and is one of the most simple houseplants to care for. It grows best in bright indirect light or an area protected from the afternoon sun, and stem cuttings can be easily propagated (Sonawane et al. 2011). The money plant is a herbaceous plant classified as a C4 plant because it contains a mechanism for turning carbon dioxide (CO2) into oxygen (O2) during photosynthesis (Sharma 2013). Because photorespiration releases CO2 at a lower rate than other C3 plants, it uses oxygen solely during cellular respiration for light respiration. As a result, with the net increase in oxygen concentration in the atmosphere, the net production of O2 by photosynthesis exceeds the net consumption of O2 during respiration (Sharma 2013).
Epipremnum aureum, often known as golden pothos, is a kind of epipremnum. It is one of the most widely used tropical ornamental plants in hanging baskets. Epipremnum aureum is a potent air purifier. Unlike other plants that produce carbon dioxide at night, it continues to produce oxygen.

Orange jasmine Plant (Murraya paniculata): Distribution, Morphological Characters, Chemical constituents, and Medicinal Uses

Murraya paniculata is the most widely distributed Murraya species, appearing in the tropics and subtropics of Asia and Oceania. It can be found across much of India and the Andaman Islands, up to a height of 1500 meters. From India and Sri Lanka to Myanmar (Burma), southern China and Taiwan, Thailand, and eastward via the Malesian region to northeastern Australia and Caledonia. The therapeutic benefit of this species has been discovered all over its range.

Paper flower (Bougainvillea glabra): Distribution, Habit, Morphology, Propagation, and Uses

Bougainvillea glabra In India
Bougainvilleas are widely used in aesthetic gardening and as a plant for avenue decorating in India. Flowering season and intensity, on the other hand, vary dramatically. Bougainvilleas, with their colorful bracts and mass blossoming, grace every region of India. The agro-climatic seasons of Southern India, which includes Bangalore, Mysore, Chennai, and Hyderabad, are favorable. Blooming occurs in sequence and profusion from February to April and August to October. Similarly, due to the region’s temperate climate, the Pune, Nasik, Nagpur, and Bombay districts of Western India frequently have extensive blossoming in flashes throughout the year. In comparison to Northern India, the flowering time in Eastern, Western, and Southern India is usually longer. Bougainvilleas bloom in large numbers in Northern India (Delhi, Chandigarh, Patiala, Agra, Lucknow, Kanpur) and surrounding areas from March to May, followed by pre-winter blossoming in November and December. Bougainvilleas go dormant during the coldest months of the year (December to January), due to the low temperatures and lack of sunlight. The performance of Bougainvilleas in terms of growth and flowering is also notable in steep areas. They can be grown at elevations ranging from 1500 to 2000 meters above sea level. Solan, Shimla, Almora, Nanital, and other northern hilly locations have had good blossoming. Bougainvillea is a shrubby, hardy plant with an alternating leaf pattern. Flowers have a tubular form and are linked to the spectacular heart-shaped bracts, making them inconspicuous. DUS (Distinctiveness, Uniformity, and Stability) test protocols were used to characterize 25 Indian Bougainvillea cultivars. Based on morphological parameters, the characterization results will be beneficial for identifying the kinds and their usage in attractive gardening (Zadoo, 1975; Zadoo, 1976; Sharma and Roy, 2000).

Common Ivy (Hedera helix): Classification, Origin, History, Characteristics, Reproduction, and Dispersal

Hedera helix, sometimes known as English ivy or common ivy, is a popular indoor and outdoor ornamental plant. Allergic and irritating dermatitis, as well as occupational asthma, are all possible side effects. Acute, pruritic, vesicular dermatitis, comparable to poison ivy, is typical in those who are affected. The rash appears on exposed parts, most commonly the hands, face, arms, and neck, and can have a linear pattern. Heat and perspiration can speed up the reaction, and the presence of a puncture wound just before exposure might trigger a severe reaction. Chronic rhinitis, cough, and dyspnea are noncutaneous symptoms.