April 2022

Coconut (Cocos nucifera): Distribution, Requirements for Coconut Cultivation, Disease Control

A vast range of pests and illnesses impact the growth and development of Cocos Nucifera. Pestalotiopsis palmarum, Phytophthora spp., Ganoderma spp., Maramielliouus cocophilus, Pestalotiops Insects and oryctes are examples of pests.
Phytophthora spp., often known as bud rot and nutfall, is a disease that affects 14 to 40-year-old coconut palms. It may be found in all coconut growing countries and is encouraged by excessive rainfall. Oomycetes induce chlorosis in leaves, a terrible odour, pink lesions, and inflorescences that abort nuts. Its treatment control relies on proper sanitation and the application of systemic fungicides to remove infected waste from the plantation, as well as the habit of irrigating trees early in the morning to allow the surfaces to dry.
Ganoderma spp., commonly known as Ganoderma butt rot, is caused by fungi, and the symptoms range from old fronds turning yellow, wilting, and falling to fronds collapting and dying, the interior tissue of the lower stem becoming discoloured, and the plant’s general vigour being noticeable. Fungicides are used to control it.
Chalara paradoxa, also known as stem bleeding disease, is a fungus-caused soft yellow rot on the trunk, with darkened and blackened infected patches and a reddish-brown liquid oozing from the roots. Infected trees should be removed and burned, and the disease is treated using machinery and instruments to limit disease incidence and sprays of the fungicide benomyl (Plant village)

Althernanthra sessilis: Classification, Distribution, Characteristics, Chemical Constituents, and Uses

Althernanthra contain hydrocarbons, esters, and sterols such as stigmasterol, campesterol, ß-sitosterol, a-and ßspinasterol, a-stigmasteanol, and sterol palmitates; it also contains 24-methylenecycloartanol and cycloeucalenol. Leaf saponins have been isolated. Lupeol can be found in the roots. Protein and iron can be found in young shoots. It also has 5-a -stigmasta-7- enol in it.

Beefsteak (Perilla frutescens): Distribution, Description, and Uses

Perilla, Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton], is an annual herb that grows in Asia and is endemic to the hilly parts of China and India. Perilla is also known as Bhanjira in India, and it can be found in the tropical and temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan. In China, Korea, and Japan, P. frutescens leaves are widely used for flavouring, food, medicine, and oil, as well as one of the most popular garnishes and food colourants. Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. (Lamiaceae) and its variations are popular food plants in Asian nations like China, Korea, Japan, and Thailand (Asif and Kumar, 2010; Heci, 2001).

Ficus benjamina (Weeping fig): Classification, Distribution, Description, Use, and Management

The Ficus benjamina L. is a fig tree that is native to a large region that includes India, China, Southeast Asia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the South Pacific, and the northern part of Australia (Riffle, 1998), and has been widely introduced as part of urban tree planting programs in many tropical and subtropical countries due to its ornamental value and adaptability to urban environments. F. benjamina is now found in a variety of cities throughout the world, including Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Spain, the United States, Mexico, Turkey, Paraguay, Pakistan, the Dominican Republic, Singapore, Venezuela, mention a few.

Synedrella nodiflora: Classification, Distribution Characteristics, Morphology, Germination, and Uses

Synedrella nodiflora is a little, annual weed of cultivation native to America that can also be found in India’s plains and the Andaman Islands. It is occasionally discovered in the Amravati district (M.S.). The leaves are used as a pollutice for rheumatism and the juice is used to treat earaches. Rathi and Gopalkrishnan (Rathi and Gopalkrishnan, 2005). A leaf infusion is used as a laxative in Ghana; leaf sap is used in Cango for oral affections and is put on gums to tighten them. In Malaya, it is used for poulticing painful legs and headaches after confinement, and in Indonesia, the sap is put in the ear for earache. In Tganyika, the roots are pounded and cooked, and the decoction is offered as a cough mixture (Burkil 1985). Rathi and Gopalkrishnan discovered that aerial parts of Synedrella nodiflora have insecticidal action against Sapodeptera latura ( 2005).

Holy Basil (Ocimum basilicum): Classification, Origin, Distribution Characteristics Chemical Constituents and Uses

Tulsi is a Hindu sacred plant that is revered throughout India. Tulsi is a Sanskrit word that means “the incomparable one” or “matchless one.” Ocimum sanctum is a 75-cm tall, multi-branched, erect, sturdy, and scented plant. This little plant is grown and worshipped in Hindu temples and homes all over India. Vishnu-Priya, Tulsi in Sanskrit, Kala Tulsi in Hindi, and India’s Holy Basil in English are all frequent names for this plant. This plant’s leaves, seeds, and roots have all been employed in traditional ayurvedic treatment. This herb has long been prized for its medicinal qualities. Tulsi comes in two varieties: Black (Krishna Tulsi) and Green (Tulsi) (Ram Tulsi). Chemically and medicinally, they are quite similar. Ocimum sanctum L (Tulsi), Ocimum gratissimum (Ram Tulsi), Ocimum canum (Dulal Tulsi), Ocimum bascilicum (Ban Tulsi), Ocimum kilimandschricum, Ocimum americanum, Ocimum camphora, and Ocimum micranthum are some of the species found in the genus Ocimum. They are extensively renowned for their therapeutic benefits and are grown in many places of the world. Vanya (wild) and Gramya (grown in hones) are two other names for Tulsi. Colds, coughs, malaria, dengue fever, bronchitis, asthma, sore throats, influenza, heart conditions, eye problems, mouth infections, insect bites, stress, and kidney stones are just a few of the ailments that can be treated with this plant.

Cynodon dactylon (Indian Doab): Classification Distribution Characteristics Chemical composition and Uses

Cynodon Dactylon (Doob grass) is considered sacred grass in India since it is used to feed sacred cows. Doob’s Sanskrit name is durva, which means “chopped or eaten by the animal.” The plants vilva, durva, and tulsi, which are revered by Lord Sankara, Ganesa, and Visnu, respectively, cure vata, pitta, and Kapha dosas. Hindus use the leaves durva to worship the God Ganesha. Since ancient times, this plant has been known for its cooling, haemostatic, diuretic, and tonic effects, as documented by Dhanvantari, Kaiyadeva, and Raja Nighantus. Durva comes in two varieties, white and green, according to Ayurvedic scriptures. Cynodon plant is a pungent, bitter, aromatic, hot, appetiser, vulnerary, anthelmintic, antipyretic, and alexiteric, according to Ayurveda, India’s traditional pharmacopoeia.

Urtica dioica (Soi): Classification, Characteristics, Chemical Constituents,  and Uses

Flavonoids, tannins, volatile chemicals and fatty acids, polysaccharides, isolectins, sterols, terpenes, protein, vitamins, and minerals are the primary chemical constituents of Urtica dioica. Acetylcholine, histamine, 5 hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), leukotrienes, and formic acid are the chemicals that cause the burning sensation in leaf trichomes. Kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin, isoquercitrin, astragalin, rutin, and their three rutinosides and three glycosides are the most common flavonoids. It has been discovered that shikimic acid derivatives such as phenylpropanes, caffeic acid, and different esters of this acid such as chlorogenic acid and caffeoyl malic acid exist. Carotene, hydroxycarotene, lutoxanthin, lutein epoxide, and violaxanthin are examples of carotenoids. Vitamins B, C, and K, as well as minerals such as calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium, are abundant in the leaves. Essential amino acids, glucokinnins, and high chlorophyll content are also present.

Lavatera kashmiriana: Distribution, Characteristics, Chemical constituents and Medicinal Uses

Lavatera Kashmiriana is a Kashmir Valley indigenous and endangered plant (Molur and Walker, 1998). It is a lovely, semi-evergreen, perennial tall mallow flowering Kashmiri plant that grows in humus-rich soils in meadows, shrubberies, and forest clearings (Ford, 1938; Sharma, 2003; Kaul, 1997; Vidyarthi, 2010). Roots as a laxative (Sharma, 2003), gastrointestinal problems and renal colic (Kaul, 2010), flowers for common cold and mumps, and seeds as an antiseptic. L. cachemiriana is a valuable ornamental and medicinal herb that was once only found in the Kashmir valley (Molur and Walker, 1998; Kaul, 1977), but is now distributed throughout the western Himalayas from Pakistan to Uttar Pradesh/Uttaranchal (Sharma, 2003; Kaul, 1977).

Kingcup (Caltha palustris): Distribution, Characteristics, Chemical composition and Uses

Caltha palustris can be found in all highlands of the Ukrainian Carpathians. It grows around damp channels and on the borders of ponds, wet meadows, lakes, wetlands, and swamps, as well as along rivers in slow-flowing and stagnant waters. The plant first appeared in gardens in Austria and southern Germany towards the end of the seventeenth century. It has become a prized garden plant among aficionados in Austria, Switzerland, Germany, England, and Holland. It has long been utilised for medical purposes in Ukraine.