Lumpy Skin Disease: Introduction, History, Geographic distribution Epidemiology, Causative Agent, Susceptible Hosts, Transmission, Treatment, Control, and prevention

The disease is most likely spread by biting flies and a few species of ticks, and these vectors are difficult to quarantine and regulate movement against. Control in endemic areas must therefore be limited to immunoprophylaxis. LSD vaccination has been done in two different ways. The vaccine virus is now grown in cell culture, but the Neethling strain of LSD was attenuated in South Africa by 20 passes on the chorio-allantoic membranes of hens’ eggs.
In Kenya, cattle receive strong protection against LSD via vaccination made from sheep or goat pox viruses. Because the vaccine could otherwise serve as a source of infection for the susceptible sheep and goat populations, this vaccine has the drawback that it can only be used in nations where sheep pox or goat pox is endemic. To establish an appropriate defense against LSD, susceptible adult cattle should receive a vaccination every year. At the site of inoculation, about 50% of cattle experience swelling that is 10–20 mm in diameter; in dairy cows, this swelling may be accompanied by a brief decrease in milk production. Within a few weeks, the swelling goes away. To avoid interference from the maternal antibody, calves under 6 months old whose moms were either naturally infected or inoculated shouldn’t receive the vaccine. To stop epidemics, calves from sensitive cows should be immunized because they are more susceptible.

Monkeypox virus: Disease Agent, Background, Characteristics, Common Human Exposure Routes, and Treatment

A member of the genus Orthopoxvirus, which also includes camelpox, cowpox, vaccinia, and variola viruses, is the monkeypox virus. The World Health Organization confirmed in 1980 that the virus is the main orthopoxvirus infecting human populations since smallpox elimination. In the resource-limited endemic regions where monkeypox is found, clinical detection, diagnosis, and prevention still pose difficulties. Studies carried out before the conclusion of smallpox eradication provide information on monkeypox epidemiology, but additional evaluations are required now that routine smallpox vaccination has finished and there is associated declining herd immunity. To further inform preventative strategies and gain a better understanding of the animal species involved in virus transmission and maintenance, basic ecological studies are also required

Viruses: Reproduction, Transmission, Viroids, and Prions

Viroids: The Viroids were discovered by Diener in 1971. The Viroids are infectious RNA particles. The capsid protective covering is absent. The molecular weight of viroids is in the range of 115,00 – 130,000 daltons. It contains circular RNA particles and is the smallest pathogens known. The viroids cause diseases in plants i.e they are pathogenic to plants only. E,g PSTD – potato spindle tuber disease, Citrus exocortis, Cucumber pale yellow.

Viruses: Meaning, Features, and Components

What form of the Virus is a Bacteriophage
The Bacteriophage refers to eaters of bacteria as they destroy bacteria. The Bacteriophages are obligate parasites and are found in habitats where bacteria can survive. The bacteriophages are also referred phages. the phages are known to occur in all bacteria. Most of the work has been done on the phages that attack Escherichia.
Structure of Bacteriophage
It is named the Loli-Pop Construction. This form has a head and tail. It is also named Tadpole Construction. The tail in addition to the head is present. The tail is elongated, the head and tail are joined together with the help of the collar and neck. Around the tail, there is the presence of a sheath that is contractile from six edges, there is the presence of tail fibers on the lower side plate. there is the presence of structures called tail pins. so there are six tail fibers and six tail pins.

Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and Practice tests (Viruses, Viroids, and Lichens)

1. Which of the following causes usnic acid to be produced? A.Urtica B.Adiantum C.Usnea D.Psilotum 2. Tobacco mosaic virus genetic material is A. ds DNA RNA C.ds RNA D. ss DNA 3. Bacterial viruses make up the vast bulk of the world’s bacteria. A.Single stranded RNA B.Double stranded RNA C.Single stranded RNA D.Double stranded …

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