Role of Earthworm in soil Fertility, Agriculture and Ecosystems

Role of Earthworm in soil Fertility, Agriculture and Ecosystems
Agriculture is facing enormous demands as the world’s population and consumption grow. Food production must significantly increase to fulfil the world’s future food security and sustainability needs. However, the increase of cultivable land is extremely slow. Fertilizers must be used extensively due to the quickly growing population and slowly developing agricultural land. Chemical fertiliser use is a potential approach for enhancing agricultural yields. productivity. A huge rise in agricultural productivity has been recorded during the last century, owing primarily to fertilisation, which results in improved plant nutrient availability. Chemical fertilisers now contribute to roughly 40–60% of total crop output increases. Maize is one of the most important food crops on the planet, delivering at least 30% of the calories consumed by almost 4.5 billion people in 94 developing countries. It’s also used in animal feed and a variety of industrial goods, including the production of biofuels. Increased demand and supply gaps in global maize supplies have exacerbated the market, contributed to rising global maize prices, and even put millions of people at risk of food insecurity. To solve these issues and accelerate maize growth and yield, measures must be adopted.

Earthworm: Classification, Taxonomy, Characteristics, Reproduction and Importance For class 11th and NEET

Reproduction in Earthworm
Although earthworms are hermaphroditic, they rarely self-mate (each individual possesses both male and female reproductive organs.). During mating, two worms share sperm. The clitellum, a prominent, girdle-like structure near the anterior end of the body, produces cocoons in which mature sperm and egg cells, as well as nourishing fluid, are deposited. The sperm cells within the cocoon fertilise the ova (eggs), which subsequently fall off the worm and land in or on the earth. After around 3 weeks, the eggs hatch, and each cocoon produces two to twenty baby worms on average.