Solved Model Question Paper for Class 12th Political Science NCERT/CBSE (2023)
Question: What is Bandwagon strategy? 2 Marks
Answer: Bandwagon strategy is a marketing strategy in which a company tries to convince consumers to adopt a product or service that is already popular and widely used. It works by emphasizing the popularity of the product or service and creating a sense of FOMO (fear of missing out) in the minds of consumers. This strategy is commonly used in conjunction with other marketing tactics such as discounts, coupons, and special offers.
Question: Name two major contentious issues between India and Pakistan. Which treaty has survived to this day despite various military conflicts between the two neighbours? 2 marks
Answer: The two major contentious issues between India and Pakistan are the Kashmir dispute and the Siachen conflict. The Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) has survived to this day despite various military conflicts between the two neighbours. The IWT, signed in 1960, is a water-sharing treaty between India and Pakistan that sets out how the waters of the Indus River and its tributaries should be shared between the two countries.
Question: What is disarmament? 2 Marks
Answer: Disarmament is the process of reducing or abolishing a nation’s military capability. This may involve the reduction of military forces, weapons, and/or the destruction of weapons. Disarmament is often seen as a crucial step towards peace and stability in a region.
Question: Mention any three new sources of threat to Global Security. 2 Marks
Answer: 1. Cyber warfare: Cyber warfare is one of the most serious threats to global security. Cyber-attacks can damage entire countries, disrupt critical infrastructure, and even cause physical damage to people and property.
2. Terrorist groups: Terrorist groups have become increasingly active in recent years and have caused considerable damage to countries around the world. They use violence and other tactics to spread fear and cause disruption.
3. Climate Change: Climate change is one of the most significant threats to global security. The effects of climate change are already being felt in many parts of the world, and are expected to worsen in the coming years. This could lead to more extreme weather, food shortages, displacement of people, and water scarcity.
Question: What do you mean by globalization? 2 Marks
Answer: Globalization refers to the process of increasing the connectivity and interdependence of different countries and markets around the world. It involves the integration of economics, politics, and culture through the spread of ideas, technology, goods, services, and capital.
Question: What is cultural homogenization? Give two examples of cultural homogenization. 2 Marks
Answer: Cultural homogenization is the process of unifying different cultures into one homogeneous culture. This process is usually caused by forces such as globalization, migration, and media.
Examples of cultural homogenization:
1. Increase in the number of fast-food restaurants in different parts of the world
2. The spread of Western music, fashion and entertainment across the globe.
Question: What is Panchsheel? 2 Marks
Answer: Panchsheel is a set of five principles of peaceful co-existence proposed in 1954 by the Prime Ministers of India and China, Jawaharlal Nehru and Zhou Enlai.
The five principles are mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty; mutual non-aggression; mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs; equality and mutual benefit; and peaceful co-existence.
Question: What did the Chipko movement stand for? 2 Marks
Answer: The Chipko movement was a grassroots protest movement that began in the Indian Himalayan region in the 1970s. It was a non-violent protest against deforestation and the destruction of the environment by timber contractors. The term “Chipko” means “to hug” in Hindi, and the movement’s participants hugged trees to prevent them from being cut down. The movement was a major success and is credited with helping to save India’s forests from further destruction.
Question: Give a brief introduction of Mandal commission. 2 Marks
Answer: The Mandal Commission, established in 1979 by the government of India, was an effort to address the issue of caste-based discrimination and inequality in India. It was headed by the Indian parliamentarian B.P. Mandal, and its goal was to identify the socially or economically backward sections of Indian society and to recommend ways to improve their situation. The commission proposed a 27% reservation for members of the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in government jobs and educational institutions. The report of the Mandal Commission caused considerable controversy and political debate in India.
Objectives (Each question carries 1 mark)
(A) Multiple choice Questions:
i. Which of the following was earlier called as Baghdad pact.
(d) Warsaw Pact
Answer: (b) CENTO
ii. The policy of Glasnost was initiated by
(a) Joseph Stalin
(b) Boris Yeltsin
Answer: (c) Gorbachev
iii. Which of the following is an example of a movement against outsiders
(a) Mizo National Front
(b) Naga Nationalist Front
(c) All Assam Students’ Union
(d) None of the above
Answer: (a) Mizo National Front
iv. Which of the following is associated with Narmada Bachao Andolan (a) Medha Patkar
(b) Maneka Gandhi
(c) Gaura Devi
(d) Jyotiba Phule
Answer: (a) Medha Patkar
(B) True/ False
i. Globalisation is about worldwide inter-connectedness. (True/False)
ii. Agenda 21 was the outcome of the Rio summit. (True/False)
iii. Hyderabad acceded to India through plebiscite. (True/False)
iv. Doctrine of the Basic structure of the constitution was advanced in the Golak Nath case. (True/False)
(C) Fill in the blanks:
i. ____________ is the present UN Secretary-General.
Answer: António Guterres
ii. Alliance-building is a component of __________ Security.
iii. Planning Commission was set up in __________.
iv. ___________ was the official candidate of congress in the 1969 Presidential election.
Answer: Indira Gandhi