Plant Morphology

Hydroponics: Definition, History, Types, and Scope in Indian Agriculture

A method of growing plants using mineral fertilizer solutions without soil is called Hydroponics (Greek words “hydro” for water and “ponos” for labour). Growing plants hydroponically necessitates controlling environmental variables such as light intensity and duration, temperature, humidity, pH of the solution/medium, and mineral nutrients. This is why it is also known as “controlled environment agriculture” (CEA). Hydroponics refers to the practice of growing plants without soil.

Aestivation: Definition, Types, and Examples for Class 11th and NEET

Ovary Apocarp and Syncarp
The number of carpels in an ovary in the female reproductive organ of the flower gynoecium is varied. The monocarpellary ovary includes one carpel; the Polycarpellory ovary contains more than five carpels. Apocarpous ovary: When carpels are separated from one another, they are referred to as “Apocarpus ovary.” Michelia, Syncarpus ovary’, for example, Ladies finger is an example of syncarpus ovary, which occurs when carpels are joined.

INFLORESCENCE: Denifition and Types For class 11th and NEET

Denifition: Inflorescence
An Inflorescence is a cluster of flowers produced by a plant and carried on a specific reproductive axis. The “Peduncle” refers to the main axis of the inflorescence. The pedicel is the name given to the flower’s stalk. A bract is a leaf-like structure that contains a flower or inflorescence. ‘Bracteate’ refers to a flower with bracts, while ‘Ebracteate’ refers to a flower without them. ‘Bracteolate’ refers to flowers having bracteoles, whilst ‘ebracteolate’ refers to flowers without bracteoles. “Bracteoles” refers to the flower and the Bract. ‘Bracteolate’ refers to a flower having bracteoles, while ‘Ebracteolate’ refers to a flower without them.

LEAF: Features, Types, Functions, and Modification For class 10th,  11th, and NEET

Insectivorous plants: “Insectivorous plants” or “Carnivorous plants” are plants whose leaves have been adapted to capture insects to meet their nitrogen requirements.
1)The spoon-shaped Drosera Lamina is covered in sticky hairs called Tentacles that shimmer like dew in the sunlight. Insects mistook it for Nector and landed on it to feed. Sensitive tentacles bend over insects, trapping and digesting them using tentacle secretions.
2)In Nepenthes (Pitcher) complete Leaf is changed into a beautifully colored Pitcher, with a top to capture the Insects. The Pitcher’s inner wall is covered in hairs that prevent insects from escaping and secrete digestive enzymes that help it digest its protein. The Pitcher’s edge is a little slick. When an insect lands on a pitcher, it crawls inside and is digested.
3)Dionea muscipulata (Venus Fly Trap): It traps prey via trapping structures made by the margins of rosette leaves, which are equipped with tiny hair known as ‘Trigger hair.’ These are touch-sensitive. The lamina’s inner surface is brilliantly colored.
4) Utricularia (Bladderwort) is a submerged Hydrophyte with floating and submerged leaves. A Bladder with a Trap door is created from the floating leaf. It permits small aquatic insects to enter, then closes the trap door, imprisoning and digesting the bug to meet the nitrogen requirement.

Stem: Features, Types, Functions, and Modification For class 11th and NEET

A) Herbs: ‘Herbs’ are little plants with soft, succulent, green, and less branching stems. Example, Sunflower, and paddy.
B) Shrubs: Shrubs are medium-sized plants with a hard, woody stem that is branched and has a bushy appearance.Example Hibiscus, and Custard apple.
C) Trees: ‘Trees’ are huge, tall plants with very hard, woody stems that have distinct trunks and are densely branched. Mango and Eucalyptus are two examples.