August 2022

Spider Plant: Introduction, Classification, Distribution, Characteristics, Propagation, and Phytochemical Screening

The Genus Chlorophytum contains 200–220 species of perennial plants that are evergreen, herbaceous, stoloniferous, and rhizomatous and are native to subtropical and tropical South Africa and Asia. They are often referred to as spider plants or ribbon plants. As part of traditional Chinese medicine, it is used to treat burns, fractures, and bronchitis. It is typically referred to as a spider plant.

Grasshoppers: Introduction, Description, Characteristics, Life Cycle, and, Control

Grasshoppers are insects belonging to the suborders Caelifera and Ensifera of the Orthoptera order. To distinguish them from katydids, which have much longer antennae, they are frequently referred to as short-horned grasshoppers (Caelifera) (Ensifera). These insects are hemimetabolous. The three stages of the life cycle—egg, nymph, and adult—complete it. The nymph went through five moults, each time resembling the adult insect more. Some grasshopper species can alter their colour and behaviour as well as create swarms when the population density is high and the environmental circumstances are right. They are referred to as locusts when this occurs. Grasshoppers are plant-eating insects that can occasionally cause major damage to pasture, vegetables, and grains, particularly when they swarm in the millions like locusts and decimate crops over large areas. As a result, they are categorized as mixed and oligophagous feeders (Mulkern 1967). They are crucial ground invertebrates in the grassland ecosystem from a functional standpoint (Scott 1979 and Risser 1981). They frequently serve as the primary invertebrate in the grassland ecosystem’s consumer community and are a key source of food for many predatory species, such as birds (Joern 1986 and Samways 1997). There are 1,750 species of orthoptera recognized in India out of the world’s almost 20,000 species (Tandon and Hazra 1998). The majority of species are tropical, however, they are also widely found in temperate regions. Grasshoppers can occasionally turn into significant pests on field crops, ornamentals, and vegetable crops. The most frequent hosts for these pests are grasses and other herbaceous plants, but after consuming those hosts, grasshoppers frequently switch to eating vegetables, field crops, leaves, or even the sensitive bark of shrubs and trees.

Kohlrabi: History, Selection, Nutrition Benefits, Description, Facts, and Growth

The German turnip or turnip cabbage known as kohlrabi was developed through selection for an expanded edible stem. The plant’s edible portion is either green or purple and can be consumed raw or cooked.
Time of Planting: Seeds can be started indoors a few weeks before the last frost and then transplanted outside, or they can be seeded outside right after the last frost. Direct sow kohlrabi seeds 90 days or so before the first day of frost if you’re growing it in the fall. Transplant kohlrabi seedlings outdoors in the spring around one to two weeks before the last frost date in your area.
Spacing Requirements: Insert kohlrabi seeds 14 inches deep. 9 to 12 inches should separate plants.
Time to Germination: 3–10 days for germination
Special Considerations: Kohlrabi does not grow well in loose soil, so consider this.
Common Pests and Diseases: Flea beetles and other pests are attracted to kohlrabi. By putting a thin row cover over kohlrabi plants, it is simple to keep these pests away.
Harvest: Kohlrabi plants should be harvested when the bulbs are 3 inches in diameter. Cut the stem just above the surface of the soil.
Eating: There are numerous ways to prepare kohlrabi bulbs. The bulb of kohlrabi can be finely minced and used in soups, while the raw vegetable can be shredded and used in salads. Soups may also contain steamed kohlrabi. A delicious winter delicacy is a roasted kohlrabi, which may also be cooked into fritters or vegetable pancakes. Young kohlrabi greens are also edible. Storage: Kohlrabi can be kept in the fridge for a few weeks.

Cattleya Orchid: Introduction, Features, Leaves, Roots, Pseudobulbs, Flower, General Care, and Maintenance, Commercial Use, and, Care after Flowering

Orchids are a special class of plants with a vast range of flower sizes, shapes, and colours. They are renowned for their resilient and entrancingly lovely flowers, which command very high prices on the global market and account for about 8% of the world’s floricultural trade. Cattelya is one of these crucial orchid species for commerce. Large, showy, vibrantly coloured, occasionally fragrant flowers belonging to the Cattleya genus are well-known for finding a great market as cut flowers and potted plants. They are frequently called the “Queen of Flowers.”
The genus Cattelyas is a member of the subfamily epidendroideae, subtribe laeliinae, and family orchidaceae. William Cattley, a renowned gardener, inspired the name “Cattleyawa.” The 45 different species of orchid were then used to designate the group. Although they can be found all over the world, Cattelya orchids are primarily found in Mexico and Central America. They grow along a rhizome, which eventually becomes a stem with roots, leaves, and flowers. They are sympodial and epiphytic. The maturation period for Cattelyas plants grown from seeds ranges from 4 to 7 years. When compared to other orchids, captelyas are much more tolerant. They are quite strong and can tolerate temperature changes, humidity, and even conditions that resemble drought to a good extent. The ideal temperature range for Cattelyas is between 55°F and 60°F (12.8°C and 15.6°C) at night and between 70°F and 80°F (21.1°C and 26.6°C) during the day. The cattleya grows best.
when the change in temperature between day and night is between 15°F and 20°F (8.3°C and 11.1°C).

Plumeria alba: Classification, Geography, Characteristics, Season and kind of growth, Phytochemical Constituents, and, Uses

Different parts of Plumeria alba were thought to be effective against several illnesses, including leprosy, rheumatism, abdominal tumours, and malaria. Herpes, scabies, and ulcers are treated using the milky sap of the stem and leaves. The seeds aid in hemostasis, the seeds are used as a plaster over hard tumours, and the latex is used as a purgative, cardiotonic, diuretic, and hypotensive. Additionally, P. alba is used to treat herpes, scabies, and ulcers, and its seeds have hemostatic qualities. Over strong tumours, the bark is bruised and used as plaster.

Beetle (Coleoptera): Classification, General Morphology, and, Life Cycle

The insect order Coleoptera is known as the Beetle family. The Greek words for “sheathe” and “wing,” respectively, are keleos and pteron, which translate to “sheathed wing” and “coleoptera,” respectively. The front pair of wings, known as the “elytra,” of most beetles, which have two pairs in total, are hardened and thickened to serve as a protective sheath or shell for the rear pair and the back portion of the beetle’s body. Almost 25% of all known life forms are members of the order Coleoptera, which has the most species of any other order. There are over 400,000 species of beetles, which make up about 40% of all described insect species, and more are continuously being discovered. A hundred million species, both known and unknown, have been estimated to exist overall. Beetles are found in a very wide variety. Except for the ocean and the polar regions, they can be found in all major habitats. Some species can adapt to almost any type of diet. The largest family of insects, the Scarabaeidae, has more than 30000 different species worldwide. The Beetle can be viewed as a pest because many of these plants are crucial for forestry, agriculture, and domestic use. Beetles are not only a nuisance, but they can also be helpful by reducing insect numbers. The ladybug or ladybird is one of the best and most well-known examples (family Coccinellidae). On aphid colonies, the larvae and adults are observed feeding. Other ladybugs consume mealybugs and scale insects as food. They may eat other things like tiny caterpillars, juvenile plant bugs, honeydew, and nectar if their usual food supplies are lacking. Predators of several insects and other arthropods, such as fly eggs, caterpillars, wireworms, and others, include ground beetles (family Carabidae). Pestilent flies and parasitic worms that breed in bovine manure have been successfully controlled by dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Dung beetles are a crucial part of the terrestrial ecology both taxonomically and functionally.
The largest order of insects belongs to the class Coleoptera. There are over 350,000 species in 115 groups that are currently known to exist there, but according to recent estimates, there may be hundreds of thousands or perhaps millions of undiscovered species. Beetles are tremendously diverse in terms of size, form, and ecological tactics in addition to being extremely rich in species (Lawrence and Britton, 1991; Balke et al., 2002).

Dracaena americana: Classification, Distribution, Characteristics, Ecology, and Ethnobotany

1. Dracaena americana is a shrub or small tree that can reach heights of 10 to 12 metres and has a trunk diameter of up to 30 cm. It typically has many stems.
2. The bark is peeling and grayish-brown in colour. Young branches have oblique leaf scars on them. D. americana has leaves along the length of its stems, in contrast to many Dracaena species that bear their leaves in tufts at the tip of their stems.
3. Bright green, linear leaves are soft and flexible, measuring 20–35 cm long and 1.0–2.5 cm wide at the base.
4. The inflorescence measures 20 to 30 cm in length, is paniculate, terminal, and branching into two orders.
5. Tepals are creamy white and about 7 mm long; the flowers are carried on short pedicels in clusters of 2–5.
6. A species description from Standley & Steyermark (1952) and Grayum (2003) states that the berries can be up to 20 mm in diameter, occasionally lobed, and contain one to three subglobose seeds that are 10–12 mm in diameter.

Widows thrill plant: Classification, Distribution, Botanical Description, Propagation, Chemical Phytoconstituents, and Uses

The ornamental plant Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, 2n=34), sometimes known as the Panda plant, is a member of the Crassulaceae family and is grown in pots all over the world (Ofokansi et al., 2005; Nahar et al., 2008). In 1763, Michel Adanson published the first description of the approximately 130 species of annual and perennial shrubs, climbers, and small trees that make up the genus Kalanchoe.
The species is distinguished by a significant concentration of cardiac glycosides. As a result, it is becoming more significant in medicine and pharmacy. Recent research suggests that Kalanchoe, which has a high concentration of metabolites with antimitotic action, may be useful in the treatment of cancer (Garces et al., 2009). Additionally, it is employed in the treatment of burns, allergies, and skin conditions (Hsieh et al., 2013). Since kalanchoe grows slowly, it is crucial to create a tissue culture method for its quick production for both commercial and therapeutic uses. The development of biotechnological techniques to enhance the production of this plant in-vitro is of great interest due to its therapeutic relevance and potential to produce value-added secondary metabolites in tissue culture (Khan et al., 2006). Although leaf and stem cuttings are an easy way to multiply kalanchoe, this method is slow and inefficient, frequently producing low-quality plants. For the first time, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana regeneration was reported by Bhuiyan et al. (2005), resulting in quick replication of high-quality plants. In-vitro propagation is vital for the quick generation of plants of the highest grade (Ioannou et al., 1992; Frello et al., 2002; Khan et al., 2006; Sanikhani et al., 2006)

Improvement in Food Resources: Questions and Answers for Class 9th Chapter 15 (CBSE/NCERT)

What is genetic manipulation? How does it help with agricultural methods?
Ans: The act of inserting a particular gene into the genetic makeup of a crop to produce the desired traits is known as genetic manipulation. The following are some examples of desirable traits that can be obtained by genetic modification:
High yield, improved quality, broader adaptability, desirable agronomic features, and biotic and abiotic tolerance are only a few of the characteristics.

Cuphea carthagenensis: Classification, Distribution, Morphology, and Phytochemical Constituents

Cuphea carthagenensis, also known as “Colombian waxweed,” is a naturally occurring herbaceous weed in the Lythraceae family (Graham, 1975). The majority of the time, it is used to treat conditions like hypertension, heart disease, fever, viral illnesses like herpes, etc. Historically, Cuphea carthagenensis has been mistaken for the eastern USA-native Cuphea viscosissima (Graham, 1988; Graham 1975). The floral tube, which is green in Cuphea Carthagenensis and purple-green in Cuphea viscoissima, can be used to tell them apart. Having creeping, rooted stems distinguishes Cuphea carthagenensis, a species from tropical America, from Cuphea strigulosa (Graham, 1988).