Human Physiology

Artificial Pacemakers: Definition, Components, Biomaterials, and Advantages and Disadvantages

Artificial pacemakers
Pacemaker technology is a hot topic in the scientific community right now. A pacemaker is a very successful way to restore regular heartbeats, allowing the patient to live a vibrant and active life without having to worry about breathing problems.
Artificial pacemakers are electronic devices that generate electrical impulses to stimulate the heart and restore or maintain a normal rhythm. It regulates the heart’s pumping function by restoring the connection between the atria and ventricles, resulting in a significant boost in survival capacity. It is used to deal with branchardia and tachyarrhythmia. It has a sensor that keeps the level of periodic signal constant.

Diseases of the Kidney: Stones, Pyelonephritis, Renal Failure, Dialysis, and Kidney Transplant

Stones in the kidneys
Kidney stones are solid accretions (crystals) of dissolved minerals in urine discovered inside the kidneys or ureters. They are also known as Nephrolithiases, Urolithiases, or Renal calculi. They range in size from a grain of sand to the size of a golf ball. Kidney stones usually flow through the body through the urine stream; if they grow large enough before passing (on the order of millimeters), obstruction of a ureter and urine distention can cause significant discomfort in the flank, lower abdomen, and groyne. Gallstones are unrelated to kidney stones.

Urinary system: Definition, and Functions of the Urinary System

The Urinary System is a collection of organs in the body that filter waste and other chemicals from the bloodstream. Urine is the means through which the chemicals are filtered out of the body. Urine is a liquid excreted through the urethra that is produced by the kidneys, collected in the bladder, and discharged by the urethra. Urine is used to removing surplus minerals and vitamins from the body, as well as blood corpuscles.
The kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra are all urinary organs. The urinary system collaborates with the body’s other systems to maintain homeostasis. the kidneys are the most critical organs in maintaining homeostasis Because they regulate the blood’s acid-base balance and water-salt balance,