Probiotics: Introduction, Types, Characteristics, Mechanism of action, and Current Status of Probiotics in India

The term probiotic was derived from the Greek word, meaning for life. Kollath initially coined this term in 1953. Probiotics have been around for a very long time. Human ingestion of fermented milk is credited as the origin of the probiotic. Probiotics then gained popularity in animal nutrition. Even in the Vedic era, the importance of fermented milk in the human diet was understood. Microbiologists discovered in the late 19th century that the microflora in the gastrointestinal tracts of healthy people differed from that found in sick people. The pioneering work of Metchnikoff from the Pasteur Institute in the early 1900s can be credited with the initial detection of the beneficial role of these bacteria. To replace dangerous microorganisms with helpful ones, he advised giving these helpful bacteria a cold. Metchnikoff looked into the extraordinary number of Bulgarians who reach their 100th birthday. He claimed that a bacteria in the popular Bulgarian yoghurt was responsible for their good health and longevity, and he called the yoghurt-culturing microbe Lactobacillus Bulgaricus in honour of the Bulgarian people.

Human Microbiome: Definition, Effect on Health, Examples, Human Microbiome Project, and Importance

The microbiome of an individual may affect their propensity to contract infectious diseases and play a role in chronic gastrointestinal conditions including Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome. The way a person reacts to pharmacological therapy is determined by certain assemblages of microorganisms. The mother’s microbiome may have an impact on her children’s health. Researchers who are analysing the human microbiome are finding new species and genes. Numerous combinations of microbe species have been related to specific human health issues in genetic studies that assess the relative abundance of diverse species in the human microbiome. A deeper comprehension of the variety of microbes found in the human microbiome may result in innovative treatments, such as growing more “good” bacteria to treat an infection brought on by “bad” bacteria. The HMP acts as a guide for figuring out how the microbiome affects immunity, disease, nutrition, and overall health.

Gene Pool: History, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary gene pool and Importance

The set of all genes, or genetic data, in any population, typically of a specific species, is known as the Gene Pool
A Gene pool is a collection of all the genes (including alleles) found in a population or species that is capable of reproduction.
The term “Gene pool” refers to the entire gene pool found in interbreeding populations. One way to look at this is that the population’s ability to survive environmental problems increases with the size of the gene pool. Inbreeding can result in a narrow gene pool and a decreased capacity to endure environmental obstacles wherever these people live, such as among siblings or first cousins.

Genetic Syndromes: Sickle Cell Disease, and Severe Combined immunodeficiency (SCID) For Class 11th and 12th

Sickle cell disease
Sickle cell disease (SCD), which is the result of homozygous and compound heterozygote inheritance of a mutation in the -globin gene, was originally described by Herrick in 1910, although reports suggested that the ailment had been described earlier. A single base-pair point mutation (GAG to GTG) causes the hydrophobic amino acid valine to replace the hydrophilic amino acid glutamic acid in the sixth position of the -chain of haemoglobin, resulting in haemoglobin S. (HbS). SCD is the first disease to be molecularly characterised, as described by Pauling, and was confirmed to be caused by a single amino acid substitution by Ingram almost 70 years ago. Despite a well-defined Mendelian inheritance, phenotypic variation in clinical presentation is a distinctive feature of SCD. When foetal haemoglobin (HbF) lowers toward the adult level by five to six months of age, SCD is a multi-organ, multi-system condition with both acute and chronic consequences.

Genetic Disorders or Syndromes: Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, Phenylketonuria (PKU), and, Klinefelter Syndrome For Class 11th, and 12th  

Klinefelter Syndrome
Dr. Harry Klinefelter and his colleagues originally identified the set of characteristics that has come to be known as Klinefelter Syndrome in 1942. By the late 1950s, scientists had found that men who experienced this set of symptoms possessed an additional sex chromosome, XXY, rather than the typical male configuration of XY. Even while XXY is frequent, the condition is not prevalent. Many guys go through life never even realizing that they have an extra chromosome. Due to this, the name “Klinefelter syndrome” is no longer widely used in the medical field. Instead, many professionals prefer to refer to guys with an additional chromosome as “XXY males.”

Thalassemia: Definition, Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention

Thalassaemia first appears Only by understanding the parents’ thalassemia status before the child is conceived can major children be avoided. To determine whether the index foetus is affected or not, parents who test positively for the carrier condition on both sides of the family must be advised to undergo prenatal diagnosis counseling in the first trimester of pregnancy. The couple is recommended to get a medical abortion if they are harmed.

Pedigree Analysis: Definition, Methods, and its Importance For Class 12th, and NEET

Pedigree Analysis: Definition
A Pedigree is a diagrammatic description of how a specific trait or traits are passed down genetically across two or more generations of biologically related people. In other words, it is the use of symbols and ancestral lines to symbolize the links between family members. It helps in putting family relationships into perspective, especially for big extended families. To ascertain how various genetic illnesses are inherited, it is frequently utilized. Drawing a family tree using common symbols allows one to trace their family history and better comprehend inheritance types. In a Pedigree, males and females are symbolized differently, and relationships are depicted using various line patterns. Additionally, several symbols are used to symbolize carriers of a genetic characteristic or those who are impacted by it.