Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Artificial vegetative propagation: Definition, Cutting, Layering, Grafting, and Advantages For Class 10th,11th, and NEET

Advantages of the artificial vegetative propagation approach.
The following are some benefits of artificial propagation:
1. The genotype of newly created plants is unchanged from the parent plant.
2. A single plant can quickly produce a large number of plants.
3. The plant’s growth patterns can be adjusted to the surroundings.
4. Useful traits from two separate people can be blended to create new varieties.
5. Where seed output is low or plants don’t generate seeds, it helps to grow more plants.

Ovule: Structure, Types, and Embryo sac

Embryo sac and its Development
The first cell of the female gametophyte is the functional megaspore. It grows largely along the micropyle-chalazal axis and is mostly chalazal. The nucleus undergoes three mitotic divisions and forms eight nuclei. Out of the Eight nuclei, 4 are present at the micropylar end and 4 at the chalazal end. One nucleus from each group comes in the center to form 2 polar nuclei. The remaining three nuclei at the micropylar end make up the egg apparatus, whereas the remaining three nuclei at the chalazal end make up three antipodal cells. The mature female gametophyte or embryo sac is the entire structure with two polar nuclei, three antipodals, one egg, and two synergids. the Monosporic 8- nucleate embryo sac or polygonum type of embryo sac arises from a single megaspore and has 8 nuclei

Pollination: Definition, Types, and Agents

Pollen grains are transmitted from the Anther to the Stigma during pollination. When pollen grains land on ovule, it is known as Direct pollination e,g Gymnosperms, and some primitive Angiosperms. When pollen grains land on Stigma and form a pollen tube it is known as Indirect pollination e,g Angiosperms. Pollination’s function in fruit and seed production has been recognised since ancient times. The Arab and Assyrian kings used to perform a special religious ceremony in which the female inflorescence of the date palm was touched by the male inflorescence to ensure good fruiting. However, Thomas Millington, towards the end of the 17th century, provided the scientific underpinning for this method.

Flower: Definition, Types, and Functions

Types of Flower
1. Complete Flower: If all the four whorls are present in the flower it is called Complete Flower (Gynoecium, Androecium, corolla, calyx).
2. Incomplete Flower: If any one of the four whorls are absent in Flower it is called Incomplete Flower (Gynoecium, Androecium, corolla, calyx)
3. Bisexual Flower: If a flower contains both male and female reproductive parts it is called Bisexual Flower.
4. Unisexual Flower: If Flower has only one reproductive part then it is called Unisexual Flower.
Pistillate Flower: If the only female part is present
Staminate Flower: If the only male part is present i.e. Androecium the flower is called Staminate Flower.
5. Dichlamydeous Flowers: If a flower contains both Calyx and Corolla it is known as Dichlamydeous Flower. It is most common in plants.
6. Monochlamydoeus Flower: If a flower contains only one whorl, the whorl which is present is known as perianth and this is seen in the case of monocot families e,g Liliaceae
7. Achlamydeous Flower: If Calyx and Corolla are absent in flower it is called Achlamydeous Flower.