Diversity in living organisms

Biology: Definition, Branches, Botany, Zoology, Systematics, and Significance

A few key elements concerning Evolution
About 25 billion years ago, the Universe began to form. About 4 billion years ago, life began. The conditions on Earth at the time of life’s inception are as follows:
1. Extremely hot temperatures, i.e. 800°C
2. Gases such as CH4, NH3, He, H2, and water vapours were present in the form of lighter components.
3. Heavy elements such as Fe (iron) and Nickel (Ni) are found in the Earth’s core.
4. The only source of energy was ultraviolet light, which favoured photochemical reactions.
5. During the period of evolution, there was no molecular oxygen in the atmosphere, i.e. the atmosphere was reduced.

Two-kingdom system of classification: Characters, Disadvantages, and Dual Organisms

Five-kingdom system of classification: Definition and Characters
Hello, dear students today we will discuss the Five-kingdom system of classification, it was R.H. Whittaker in 1969 classified organisms into Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Animalia, Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Monera, and New one Kingdom Fungi.
Characters for 5 kingdom classification
1. The organism is pro-karyotic or eu-karyotic
2.The organism is unicellular or multicellular
3. The living being is auto-trophic or hetero-trophic, if the living being is hetero-trophic it is three types A. parasitic B. saprophytic C. holozoic
4. Reproduction refers to whether the individual perform asexually, sexually or both
5. Evolutionary relationship describes how a new individual evolved from an older one, how creation took place

Taxonomic Aids: Definition, Types, Examples, and Importance

Herbarium: Definition, Kinds, and Functions
A herbarium is a place for the storage of dried, pressed plant specimens mounted on herbarium sheets. So we can easily be called Herbarium as a storehouse of plants.
A herbarium is a place where plants collected from far and wide are preserved in pressed and dried conditions. they are kept in pigeon holes of almirahs according to an accepted system of classification. The art of Herbarium was started by an Italian taxonomist Luca Ghini (1490-1556). Plant specimens in a dried state have been preserved for over 450 years. Gherardo Cibo obtained the oldest known Herbarium specimen in 1532, which is held in Rome.
Note: The Herbarium specimens are systematically arranged on Bentham and Hooker classification system.

Taxonomic Hierarchy: Definition, Principles, Taxonomic categories, and Taxon

Taxonomy Definition:
The concept taxonomy was first provided by De Candolle in 1813. The Greek term taxis which means arranging and nomos which means rule are combined to form taxonomy. Thus taxonomy is described as the organization of living creatures such as flora and fauna into a categorization framework. Taxonomy is the art of naming, describing, and arranging species on the earth. Taxonomy is the study of the classifications recognition and naming of living beings.

Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and Practice tests (Kingdom Monera)

1. Which of the following are the tiniest living cells, without a defined cell wall, harmful to both plants and animals, and capable of surviving without oxygen?  A.Pseudomonas B.Mycoplasma C.Nostoc D.Bacillus 2. Which of the following components contributes to the stickiness of the bacterial cell? A.Nuclear membrane B.Plasma membrane C.Glycocalyx D.Cell wall 3. Which of …

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Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and Practice tests (Diversity in the living world)

1. Choose the correct scientific name for the mango, as described by Carl Linnaeus for the first time. A. Mangifera Indica  B.Mangifera indica Car. Linn. C. Mangifera indica Linn. D. Mangifera indica 2. Carl Linnaeus is associated with A. Inherited characteristics B. binomial nomenclature C. law of independent assortment D. law of limiting factors 3. …

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Living organisms: Definition and characteristics

Characteristics of living organisms
Living organisms have various characteristics that aid in their recognition and differentiation from non-living objects. some important characters which we observe in living organisms are Growth, Reproduction, Sensitivity. there are also characters such as metabolic reactions, self-replication, self-organization, etc which are taking place inside living organisms. so we will discuss whether these are the real defining characters of living organisms or can we take them as the Exclusive characters of living organisms.