September 2023

Microbes in industrial production: Fermentation, Alcoholic Beverages, Dairy Products, Biopharmaceuticals, Wastewater Treatment, Cosmetics and Personal Care Products

Fermentation: Fermentation is one of the most common industrial processes involving microbes. It is used in the production of a wide range of products, including:
Alcoholic Beverages: Yeast fermentation is used to produce beer, wine, and spirits by converting sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Dairy Products: Lactic acid bacteria are used in the fermentation of milk to produce yogurt, cheese, and buttermilk.
Bread: Yeast fermentation is essential for leavening bread, creating characteristic texture and flavor.

Microbes in household food processing: Fermentation, Pickling, Canning and Preserving, Fermented Beverages, Cheese making, Chocolate and Coffee

Bread: Yeast fermentation is essential for making bread rise and develop its characteristic texture and flavor.
Yogurt: Lactic acid bacteria ferment milk sugars, turning milk into yogurt and giving it a tangy taste.
Cheese: Different types of bacteria and moulds are used in cheese-making to develop unique textures and flavors.

Biofortification: Key Aspects and Examples for Class 12th

Golden Rice: This is one of the most well-known examples of biofortification. Golden Rice is genetically modified to produce beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It helps combat vitamin A deficiency, a major health issue in many developing countries.
Iron-Biofortified Beans: Iron deficiency anaemia is a widespread health problem, especially among women and children. Iron-biofortified beans are bred to have higher levels of iron, making them a more nutritious food source.
Zinc-Biofortified Wheat: Wheat is a staple crop for many people, but it often lacks essential nutrients like zinc. Zinc-biofortified wheat varieties are developed to provide higher levels of zinc, addressing zinc deficiency.