Ecological Pyramids: Definition, Types, Importance, Limitations, Bioenergy and Frequently Asked Questions

Fuel that comes either directly or indirectly from biological sources is known as bioenergy. Trees, corn, rice hulls, peanut shells, sugar cane, grass clippings, leaves, manure, and municipal solid waste are examples of organic material that is used as a source of biomass energy. In underdeveloped nations, biomass energy from sources like wood, agricultural waste (also known as bagasse), and manure is still the predominant energy source. For instance, countless woodstoves are utilised in these areas to generate heat for cooking or heating buildings. The anticipated yearly global production of plant biomass is 2740 Quads (1 Quad = lOI6 BTUs), which is eight times the estimated annual global energy consumption of 340 Quads [I]. As a result, biomass is a sizable source of renewable energy. Biomass may provide a significant amount of the world’s energy through short-rotation forestry, improvements in harvesting and processing methods, and more efficient stoves and boilers. Economic gains are anticipated as biomass power technology [Z] and energy crops become more widely used and generate new employment, especially for rural communities.

Life Forms of Plants Based on Climate: Predation, Parasitism Allelopathy, Symbiosis, and Commensalism For Class 10th, 11th, and 12th

When two different species work together for their mutual benefit, the relationship is known as a symbiotic association, and the involved species are known as symbionts. Examples of symbiotic relationships include phycobiont and mycobiont affiliations in lichen, rhizobium associations in root nodules, and mycorrhizal relationships in various species. Ectosymbiosis, like the mycorrhizal connection, is when two species live apart from one another. Endosymbiosis, on the other hand, is when one organism lives inside the other, like algal cells within the fungal matrix in lichens and rhizobium bacteria in plant root nodules.

Adaptations of Plants to Environmental Factors: light variations,  Temperature variations, Thermoperiodism, and Vernalization For Class 10th, 11th, and 12th

(I) Short-Day Plants, which only develop and reproduce normally when the photoperiod is less than a critical maximum (12–14 hrs), like Cannabis sativa, Andropogon virginicus, and Datura stramonimum,
(II) long-Day Plants, develop and reproduce normally when the photoperiod is greater than a critical minimum (12–14 hrs). Long-day plants, like Brassica rapa and Sorghum vulgar, are those whose growth and reproduction are boosted by day lengths greater than the critical day length.
(III) Day-Neutral plants since they don’t care about the duration of the photoperiod. such as Cucumis, Poa,

Adaptations of Plants: Morphological, Physiological, and Anatomical Adaptations for Class 10th, 11th, and 12Th

Xerophytes are plants that thrive in xeric or dry environments. Xeric environments are places where the amount of available water is insufficient.
Xeric habitats may be of the following types
Dry habitats (where the water-retaining capacity of the soil is very low and the climate is dry, e.g., desert, rock surface, wasteland, etc.).
Physiologically dry habitats (areas where water is abundant but cannot be readily absorbed by plants). These environments could be very hot, overly cold, or excessively acidic. Habitats become literally and physiologically dry, such as the side of mountains.
Xerophytes are plants that are typically found in the desert and semi-arid environments, but they can also flourish in mesophytic environments when there is enough water available. Extreme dryness, low humidity, and high temperatures are all circumstances that these plants can tolerate.
These plants develop unique structural and physiological traits when growing in unfavourable settings, primarily focusing on the following goals:
(a) absorb as much water from the environment as possible
(b) retain water in their organs for a very long period
(c) limit transpiration rate to a minimum
(d) prevent excessive water consumption.

Soil: Physical, Chemical, and Biological properties for Class 10th and 12th

Biological characteristics
Soil has a wide range of species. Bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and nematodes are the dominant organisms. The habitat of soil creatures includes gaps within a surface litter, cavities in soil aggregates, pore spaces inside individual soil particles, and root canals. These organisms get their food from living plants’ roots and organic substances found in the pore spaces. Mites are the most prevalent animals in the soil. The earthworms are a part of the wider fauna. Millipedes that feed on the litter’s surface break it down mechanically, making it more susceptible to fungus-induced decomposition. Millipedes eat mushrooms in the trash to survive. Along with millipedes, snails and slugs aid in the hydrolysis of lignins and even very indigestible cellulose. The breakdown of the cellulose in wood is caused by bigger occupants like termites and some dipterans. The fauna of tropical soil is dominated by termites.
The development of O and A layers is significantly influenced by soil organic matter, which results from biological processes during decomposition. Humus, a dark-coloured, chemically complex organic compound with distinctive components like fulvic acid and humic acid, is the portion of organic matter that survives after decomposition. Physical, chemical, and biological forces interact to generate two different forms of humus;
Mor: The organic layer is dense and clearly defined, sitting on mineral soil. Horizons O and A are distinct from one another. The primary decomposition organisms are fungi, which also create acid and reduce soil animal activity.
Mull: The mineral soil has a high level of organic content, and there is only a small covering of litter on the surface. There is a lot of animal activity. The O and A horizons don’t abruptly diverge. In this soil, bacteria are the primary decomposers.

Soil: Structure, Texture, Bulk Density, and Soil Temperature

Soil Texture
Sand, silt, and clay are the three types of soil-forming particles that are separated based on size. The biggest and smallest particles are made of clay and sand, respectively. A mixture of the three makes up the majority of soils. What gives soil its texture are the proportions of sand, silt, and clay. For instance, clay loam soil includes almost equal amounts of sand, sand, and clay.
Sand: 2.0 to 0.05 mm
Silt, from 0.05 to 0.002 mm
Clay Under 0.002 mm

Soil: Definitions, Functions, Formation, Soil Profiles, and Soil Development for Class 10th and 12th

Horizons of soil
There are various varieties of soil, and each has a unique set of qualities. Any soil that has been thoroughly dug up will reveal layers, or horizons (O, A, E, B, C, R). A soil profile is created when the horizons are combined. Each profile describes a soil’s life as a biography. The three main layers of most soils are A, B, and C, while some soils also include an organic horizon (O).
Horizons are the individual layers that makeup soil. Depending on their location and makeup, these strata are referred to as O, A, E, B, C, and R.

Water: Structure, Basic physical properties, Molecular Structure, Polarity, Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions

Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions:
The most essential biological function of water is as a solvent. It can dissolve a wide range of essential compounds, from simple salts to tiny molecules like sugars and metabolites to huge molecules like proteins and nucleic acids. Chemical reactions, molecule association and binding, diffusion-driven interactions, and ion conduction are all molecular activities that occur at substantial rates only in solution, emphasising the relevance of water’s solvent qualities.
Water’s differential effect as a solvent – the fact that it dissolves some molecules considerably better than others – is just as essential as its ability to dissolve certain compounds. The solubilities are 50 orders of magnitude higher! Ions and charged amino acids like arginine and aspartic acid are found at the high end of the spectrum. These are hydrophilic solutes (water-loving). Asparagine, the peptide backbone of proteins, the phosphate sugar backbone of nucleic acids, sugars, and lipid head groups are all included in this category of neutral amino acids. Aliphatic amino acids like leucine, aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, and lipid hydrocarbon ‘tails’ are all on the low solubility end of the spectrum. Hydrophobic solutes are those that repel water. Other solutes, such as nucleic acid bases and the amino acid tryptophan, have a range of solubility and can’t be categorised as either hydrophobic or hydrophilic.

Noise Pollution: Definition, Causes, and Control

Noise pollution can be controlled by educating people on its dangerous effects. Decibel meters may be installed in zones susceptible to noise pollution so that the public may assist in controlling noise pollution. A dense evergreen hedge can reduce noise by 10 db. Border planting of trees along highways effectively controls pollution by vehicular traffic. A 20 ft extensive plantation across the homes protects them from noise pollution.

Water pollution: Definition, Causes, and Agents

Pesticides: are chemical materials utilized by humans to govern pests, those living organisms thought to be dangerous to human interests. Most of the pesticides are poisonous and aim to kill the target species. Pesticides are used globally and in extensive sort of habitats. The extra continual disperse into all environments inclusive of the ones which might be by no means sprayed, e,g the open oceans and subpolar regions. Most of the life on earth is thus in touch with insecticides. The critical ecological traits of insecticides are toxicity, persistence, and their non-precise and density-impartial mode of action. Pesticide applications as dust and sprays lead to their wide dispersal in air, water, and incorporation into food chains in non-target areas. Bio-magnification due to DDT poisoning has devastating effects on top carnivores, especially on predatory birds. These birds are especially vulnerable because DDT includes hormonal changes that affect calcium metabolism and result in thinner eggshells that are liable to break easily. This led to a decline in the population of birds, Lillie osprey, bald eagles, falcons, peregrine, etc. Fishes are also affected substantially since they directly absorb DDT from the surrounding through the gills as well as by their food intake.