February 2022

Artificial Pacemakers: Definition, Components, Biomaterials, and Advantages and Disadvantages

Artificial pacemakers
Pacemaker technology is a hot topic in the scientific community right now. A pacemaker is a very successful way to restore regular heartbeats, allowing the patient to live a vibrant and active life without having to worry about breathing problems.
Artificial pacemakers are electronic devices that generate electrical impulses to stimulate the heart and restore or maintain a normal rhythm. It regulates the heart’s pumping function by restoring the connection between the atria and ventricles, resulting in a significant boost in survival capacity. It is used to deal with branchardia and tachyarrhythmia. It has a sensor that keeps the level of periodic signal constant.

Cell Cycle, Mechanism, and its various Phases For Class 11th and NEET

Cell Cycle: Definition
The Cell Cycle is a well-ordered sequence of events that results in cell division and the formation of two daughter cells that are identical to their parents. It is a highly controlled mechanism that is required for appropriate cell function (growth). Any interruption in the regulation of the cell cycle has the potential to cause cancer. Despite the scientific community’s intense interest in finding a solution for this threat, one-sixth of the world’s population is being hunted by it. Cell division happens in all living species, but it occurs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes in diverse ways. Prokaryotic cells have a basic shape, no nuclear membrane, and a single circular chromosome in their genome. As a result, binary fission is used to divide it.

Biosystematics trends: Chemotaxonomy,  Cytotaxonomy, Molecular Taxonomy

Complementary genetics: It compares the genome (the DNA in the nucleus) and the plasmid (the DNA outside the nucleus) (the DNA in cytoplasmic organelle). DNA is the most important component of heredity.
The amount of DNA per chromosome set is thought to be constant among animals. However, it is still unclear if variations in the size of heterochromatin segments are responsible for the ratio of DNA content of chromosomes.

Taxonomic Character and Its Types

Taxonomic character
Every biological organism has its unique characters. A taxonomic character is a set of characters that contribute to the description of a taxon.
The taxonomic trait is a property that distinguishes taxa — a feature that distinguishes one type of creature from another. Two beetle species can be distinguished by their punctate elytra.
A taxonomic character is defined by Mayr et al. (1953) as “any property of an organism or a collection of organisms by which it varies from (or resembles) an organism belonging to a different taxonomic category.”

Vultures: Meaning, Characteristics, Distribution, Habitat, Feeding and Breeding behavior

The Meaning and Characteristics of Vultures
Vultures are huge to medium-sized birds of prey that are the most efficient scavengers in nature. They primarily eat livestock and wild animal carcasses. Vultures, unlike other birds of prey, do not hunt and instead rely on carrion or carcasses. They eat a lot of carcasses, which could have harmed humans and the environment because an unmanaged carcass can serve as a breeding ground for various viruses and a source of diseases including brucellosis, anthrax, and tuberculosis in animals. Vultures, as scavengers, have a unique niche in the ecology, remaining at the top of multiple food chains. They also contribute to the ecosystem’s ecological equilibrium.

Bot fly: Description, Horse Botflies, Impact, Cycle of Life and Control

Bot Fly: Definition
Bot fly (family Oestridae), often spelled botfly, is any member of the Diptera order whose adults have a beelike look and are hairy but lack bristles.
Botflies are huge, hairy insects with thick bodies that resemble bumblebees. A mosquito, or occasionally another bug, lays the botfly egg. The larva grows until it is rather enormous inside the host’s body. Adult botflies do not feed since their mouthparts are nonfunctional. In most cases, the parasite does not cause significant harm to the host. When the larvae depart the host through the warble, the majority of the damage occurs. The botfly’s parasitism has little effect on the rabbit’s edibility (if you eat rabbit), and the area adjacent to the warble is usually clipped away, leaving the rest of the rabbit edible.

MCQs for Class 11th and NEET on The Living World

MCQs for Class 11th and NEET on The Living World
Biology is the scientific study of living organisms and processes. There is an incredible diversity of living organisms around the globe. The distinction between inanimate substances and living beings was observed by early man. Some inanimate matter (wind, sea, fire, etc.) and some animals and plants were deified by early man. The emotion of awe or dread induced by all such forms of inanimate and live beings was a common feature. Living species, including humans, were first described much later in human history. Societies that had an anthropocentric approach to biology could only make limited advances in biological understanding.

Role of Earthworm in soil Fertility, Agriculture and Ecosystems

Role of Earthworm in soil Fertility, Agriculture and Ecosystems
Agriculture is facing enormous demands as the world’s population and consumption grow. Food production must significantly increase to fulfil the world’s future food security and sustainability needs. However, the increase of cultivable land is extremely slow. Fertilizers must be used extensively due to the quickly growing population and slowly developing agricultural land. Chemical fertiliser use is a potential approach for enhancing agricultural yields. productivity. A huge rise in agricultural productivity has been recorded during the last century, owing primarily to fertilisation, which results in improved plant nutrient availability. Chemical fertilisers now contribute to roughly 40–60% of total crop output increases. Maize is one of the most important food crops on the planet, delivering at least 30% of the calories consumed by almost 4.5 billion people in 94 developing countries. It’s also used in animal feed and a variety of industrial goods, including the production of biofuels. Increased demand and supply gaps in global maize supplies have exacerbated the market, contributed to rising global maize prices, and even put millions of people at risk of food insecurity. To solve these issues and accelerate maize growth and yield, measures must be adopted.

Earthworm: Classification, Taxonomy, Characteristics, Reproduction and Importance For class 11th and NEET

Reproduction in Earthworm
Although earthworms are hermaphroditic, they rarely self-mate (each individual possesses both male and female reproductive organs.). During mating, two worms share sperm. The clitellum, a prominent, girdle-like structure near the anterior end of the body, produces cocoons in which mature sperm and egg cells, as well as nourishing fluid, are deposited. The sperm cells within the cocoon fertilise the ova (eggs), which subsequently fall off the worm and land in or on the earth. After around 3 weeks, the eggs hatch, and each cocoon produces two to twenty baby worms on average.