September 2022

Bauhinia variegata (Mountain ebony): Classification, History, Botanical Description, Chemical Constituents, and Health Benefits of B. variegata

The Bauhinia variegata is a small to medium-sized tree with a large crown and a short bole. The tree had a 50 cm diameter and a maximum height of 15 m. In comparison, trees are substantially smaller in dry forests. The bark is light brown grey in hue, soft to slightly fissured, and scaly. Bark’s inside is pinkish in hue, bitter, and fibrous. The twigs have a pleasing brownish grey color and are light green, zigzag when young, slender, angled, and to some extent hairy. The tree’s leaves have small, 1-2 mm stipules and an early caduceus. The petiole measures 3-4 cm and is puberulous to glabrous, but the lamina measures 6-16 cm in diameter and is often oval to spherical and much wider than elongated. The lobe tips are extensively rounded. Typically, the upper surface is glabrous, and the lower is glaucous, yet once fully mature, the lower surface turns glabrous. Racemes with no branches at the twig ends make up the flower clusters. Fewer blooms contain hypanthium, which is a stalk-like structure with a narrow, green basal tube and short stalks. A bright green bud with five-pointed angles and a hair-covered calyx that breaks apart on one side while the other two sides remain attached. The flower features five petals, which are somewhat asymmetrical, smaller at the base, and edged with curves. The flower also has five exceedingly thin, curled stamens, a stigma that resembles a dot, a curved pistil, and a single, narrow, green ovary (Patil et al. 2012). Each stiff, long, flat, band-shaped, diagonally striate, dehiscent pod bears 10–15 seeds. The seeds are nearly spherical through the coriaceous testa, flat, and brown (Dey and Das 1988; Prakash et al. 1978)

Snowy orchid tree (Bauhinia acuminate): Classification, Geographical Distribution, Characteristics, Chemical Constituent, and Traditional Uses

Snowy orchid tree (Bauhinia acuminate): Classification, Geographical Distribution, Characteristics, Chemical Constituent, and Traditional Uses Introduction More than 300 species are represented by the gene Bauhinia, one of the largest genera in the caesalpiniaceae subfamily. In many mild temperate and sub-tropical regions, Bauhinia has been widely planted as an ornamental tree for gardens, parks, and roadside …

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Stone Flower (Parmalia perlata): Introduction, Classification, Habitat, Botanical Description, Phytochemical Aspects, and Traditional Uses

Chharila, also known as Permalia perlata, is a plant in the Parmeliaceae family. The reason for some of its other common names, including Stone Flower, Patthar Phool, Shilaapushpa, and others, is likely due to its historical medicinal effect on ashmari (urinary stones) in the Ayurveda system of Indian medicine. Similar to Saxifraga ligulata, Didymocarpus pedicellata is also known as Patharphori (stone crusher), and both are used to treat kidney stones. A major component of parmelia species, usnic acid, demonstrated strong antimitotic, antitumor, and antimycobacterial effects. Other distinctive constituents, such as diffractic acid, gyrophoric acid, caperatic acid, etc., were also isolated and are well known for their analgesic, antipyretic, antispasmodic potential, and beneficial effects against hyperproliferative skin diseases like psoriasis, etc. There are three different types of parmelia, including P. perlata (L.) Ach., P. perofrata (Wulf.) Ach., and P. perforatum (Ach.) Mass., as well as P. sanacti-angelii Lynge, are offered as chharila in the Indian market. Tridecyl myristate, 3-ketooleanane, icosan-1-ol, usnic acid, parmelanostene permelabdone, atranorin, lecanoric acid, orcin, erythrolein, azolitmin, and spaniolitmin are only a few of the chemical components it includes. To improve the flavour and taste of food, P. perlata is typically used as a spice. Additionally, to have aphrodisiac potential, it possesses astringent, resolvent, laxative, and carminative qualities. Additionally, it helps with piles, scabies, leprosy, bronchitis, excessive salivation, toothaches, boils, inflammations, seminal weakness, dyspepsia, calculi, blood disorders, heart ailments, stomach problems, and general pain. In addition to a good cephalic snuff, drug smoke is thought to cure headaches, and powder is applied to wounds.

Caper bush (Capparis spinosa): Introduction, Classification, Description, Propagation, Harvest and Processing, Economic Importance

Capers are mostly produced for closed flower buds. After harvest, these unopened flowers are exported (Soyler and Aslan, 1999). It is crucial for the harvest that only unopened flower buds are harvested on dry days. The entire growing season is spent frequently harvesting. Unopened flowers are kept after harvesting by being placed in a 20% vinegar solution or by being covered with salt. The gathered caper buds were categorised based on their diameter.

Lumpy Skin Disease: Introduction, History, Geographic distribution Epidemiology, Causative Agent, Susceptible Hosts, Transmission, Treatment, Control, and prevention

The disease is most likely spread by biting flies and a few species of ticks, and these vectors are difficult to quarantine and regulate movement against. Control in endemic areas must therefore be limited to immunoprophylaxis. LSD vaccination has been done in two different ways. The vaccine virus is now grown in cell culture, but the Neethling strain of LSD was attenuated in South Africa by 20 passes on the chorio-allantoic membranes of hens’ eggs.
In Kenya, cattle receive strong protection against LSD via vaccination made from sheep or goat pox viruses. Because the vaccine could otherwise serve as a source of infection for the susceptible sheep and goat populations, this vaccine has the drawback that it can only be used in nations where sheep pox or goat pox is endemic. To establish an appropriate defense against LSD, susceptible adult cattle should receive a vaccination every year. At the site of inoculation, about 50% of cattle experience swelling that is 10–20 mm in diameter; in dairy cows, this swelling may be accompanied by a brief decrease in milk production. Within a few weeks, the swelling goes away. To avoid interference from the maternal antibody, calves under 6 months old whose moms were either naturally infected or inoculated shouldn’t receive the vaccine. To stop epidemics, calves from sensitive cows should be immunized because they are more susceptible.

Plant Hormones: Definition, Characteristics, Types, Discovery, Distribution, Biosynthesis, Transport, Mechanism of Action, and Functions

The term “Phytohormones” also refers to Plant hormones. Phytohormones are organic compounds made by higher plants naturally that control growth or other physiological processes at a location far from the origin of synthesis and are only active in very small amounts. Because these hormones are produced in plants, Thimmann (1948) proposed the term “Phytohormone.” Among the hormones produced by plants are Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Ethylene, Growth inhibitors, and Growth retardants. The first hormones found in plants were Auxins, followed by the discoveries of Gibberellins and Cytokinins.
1. The word hormone is Greek in origin and means to set in action. Cellular division, growth, and gene expression are all affected by plant hormones.
2. they are naturally produced within plants. Although fungi and bacteria also create very similar compounds that can impact plant growth,
3. Plant hormones are chemicals, not nutrients, that, in little doses, encourage and impact the growth, development, and differentiation of cells and tissues.

Types of Plant Hormones
It is generally agreed that there are five main categories of plant hormones, some of which can have a wide range of chemical compositions from one plant to the next.
The five main categories are:
a) Auxin
b) Gibberellin
c) Cytokinin
d) Ethylene
e) Absisic acid

Desert Rose (Adenium obesum): Introduction, Origin, Classification, Description, Propagation

Adeniums are succulent pachycaul (with thicker stems) shrubs or trees that have a distinctive swollen base (caudex), much of which can be subterranean. The caudex can vary in shape above ground from virtually globose to conical before it narrows and splits into multiple branches with erratic spacing. The plants’ look and flower display vary in their natural location, but they typically have a moderate growth rate and a lengthy lifespan, lasting for hundreds of years. Often, a distinct caudex is no longer discernible in cultivated, mature specimens. With terminal, spirally organized, tiny, glossy green leaves, the branches are smooth, greyish green to brown. Winters are dry and sufficiently cold in places where they are native, causing a period of hibernation and the corresponding loss of leaves. In South Florida, plants frequently lose some of their leaves in the winter, especially during periods of extended dryness and coolness. They never truly go into hibernation, though.

Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam): Introduction, Classification, Characteristics, Chemical Constituents, and Pharmacological activities

Balsam is a member of the Balsaminaceae family and is a decorative plant (Gardeners, 2017). It has gardenia-like blossoms and grows quickly as an annual flower in the summer (Tooke and Battey, 2000). A bushy plant with leaves bears continuous blossoms on top of it. Numerous annual and perennial variations of the balsam, which has their origins in Asia, North America, and South Africa (Christopher, 2013). The flowers bloom after 60 to 70 days, and their hues include red, white, pink, rose, and violet (Park et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2009). As traditional treatments for illnesses and skin conditions, the plant’s various parts are employed. The flower is applied to burns, and the leaves’ juice is used to treat snakebites and warts (Wang et al., 2009). In Asia, this species has been utilized as indigenous traditional medicine for rheumatism, fractures, and other illnesses (Park et al., 2003). Changes in temperature and day length cause physiological and seasonal plant development processes that let ornamental plants resist harsh climatic conditions (Adams et al. 2005). While the naturally diminishing photoperiod is unaffected, climate change is predicted to raise summertime air temperatures (Kim et al., 2009). According to Kim et al. (2009), flowering behavior in the plant cycle demonstrates how easily plants can adjust to seasonal changes and how a longer photoperiod shortens the time it takes for the first visible bud. The length of the day and the temperature are related in that when the day length naturally lengthens or shortens, the temperature warms or cools, correspondingly (Ha, 2014).

Biofertilisers: Definition, Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixers, and Algal Biofertilisers, Phosphate Solubilising Microorganisms, Organic Fertilisers, Advantages and Limitation of Biofertilisers

Organic Fertilisers
The waste from plants and animals that breaks down to produce nutrients necessary for plant growth is known as Organic fertilizers. These include compost (rotted farm wastes like sugarcane trash, paddy straw, etc.), sewage and sludge, vermicompost (earthworm-decomposed organic matter), Green manures (undecomposed plant material), and other livestock manures. Farmyard manures are composed of dung, urine, and litter from farm animals (poultry, sheep, and goat sweepings). Although they are administered in vast volumes, these organic manures only contain a small percentage of the nutrients. Organic farming is the process of cultivating crops without using chemical pesticides or herbicides and solely using organic fertilizers. In addition to providing nutrients, organic fertilizers enhance the physical characteristics of the soil, boost the availability of other nutrients, and manage worms and fungi that parasitize plants.