Saussurea lappa, commonly known as Kuth or Costus, is a perennial medicinal plant that holds a significant place in traditional herbal medicine systems due to its various therapeutic properties. Kuth (Saussurea lappa) is a herb belonging to the family Asteraceae. The genus Saussurea contains a range of about 300 species native to regions of Asia, Europe, and North America. The essential oil content of aromatic plants varies considerably between species, relating to growing conditions and the region where it is found. The majority of essential oil is concentrated in roots while other parts also contain a small amount of volatile oil. S. lappa has a huge demand in the pharmaceutical industry, but in the past decades, it has become more popular over the globe as endangered species.
Rheum emodi (Rhubarb) is a perineal stout herb belonging to the family polygonaceae and has been cultivated for over 5000 years for its medicinal properties. It is distributed in the temperate and subtropical regions of the world, especially in Asia and can be cultivated at an altitude above 1800m. The herb is reported to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, wound healing and immune enhancing activity and is commonly used worldwide herb and often known as “the wondrous drug” because of its extensive medicinal uses. Rhubarb contains a variety of compounds like flavonoids, anthraquinone glycosides, tannins, volatile oils and saponins and has long been used as an ingredient of purgative, laxative and stomachic. Paradoxically, although larger doses were used as a laxative, small doses were used to treat dysentery and diarrhoea. Rhubarb has also been used in jams, jelly and sauces of its tart flavour. There are three main types of rhubarbs, viz. the Chinese Rhubarb, the Indian Rhubarb, and the Rhapontic Rhubarb. Chinese Rhubarb comprises of dried rhizomes of Rheum palmatum L., and Rheum officinaleBaill. Rheum emodi, commonly known as Indian or Himalayan Rhubarb, is official in Indian Pharmacopeia
Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss., commonly known in Kashmir as dhup, is of the family Asteraceae. It is endemic to the Himalayas and is distributed from Pakistan to East Nepal between 3000 and 4300 m in open slopes (Chauhan, 1999). It is an important medicinal and aromatic herb of North Western Himalaya and is being exploited because of its medicinal value. A decoction of the roots is cordial. It is given in the treatment of colic and puerperal fever. The juice of the roots is used in the treatment of fevers, diarrhoea and stomachache. The crushed root is applied as a poultice to eruptions (Chopra et al., 1956). The root extract is used as incense (Manandhar, 2002). In India, J. dolomiaea has been used as an aphrodisiac (Sekar and Srivastava, 2005). In Jammu and Kashmir, the plant is used for the treatment of eye infections and it aromatic oil from its roots is useful in gout and rheumatism (Kumar et al., 2009).