Indigofera tinctoria: History, Distribution, Habitat, Classification Characteristics, Phytochemical Constituents, and Medicinal uses

The plant Indigofera tinctoria is a member of the Fabaceae family, sometimes referred to as Neeli in Tamil and found all over India. The majority of the 700 species in this group are tropical natives. The shrub Indigofera tinctoria L., sometimes known as “indigo” or “Nili,” is an annual, biennial, or perennial that grows spontaneously throughout India and is hardly cultivated for commerce. The entire plant species and its parts have been used. The leaves and twigs generate a colourless precursor from which the blue dye indigo, used in the textile industry, is derived. The plant species is very significant since it contains vital phytochemical components in addition to producing dye and having therapeutic benefits. Indirubin and indigtone, found in leaf juice extracts, are crucial for treating hydrophobia. It also has anti-diabetic, anti-hepatoprotective, anti-hyperglycemic, antibacterial, anti-antioxidant, anti-cytotoxic, anti-epilective, antinociceptive, anthelminthic, antiproliferative, and anti-dyslipidemic effects, among others.