Biodiversity: Definition, Types, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Significance and Mega-diversity Countries

Biodiversity: Definition, Types, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Significance and Mega-diversity countries


In 1987 U.S. office of evaluation and technology described bio-diversity as the range of flora and fauna occurring on earth like bacteria, algae, fungus, plants, and animals as well as the ecological frameworks in which they reside. In 1985 Walter G Rosen coined the term Bio-diversity. Bio-diversity is known as the range of species appearing on the planet including bacteria, algae, fungi, plants, and animals. Living creatures exhibit a wide range of features like animals, birds, insects, trees, shrubs, and herbs that can be found anyplace. the quantity of distinct life forms and their frequency in a given site is also understood as Bio-diversity

It is thought that more than fifty million micro-organisms and plants in the globe with roughly 2 million organisms are known. Tropical- rain forests possess a great diversity of life forms. It represents 10 percent of the planet’s surface area and is home to 90 percent of the world’s Bio-diversity. Coral reefs have the second-highest Bio-diversity whereas marine Bio-diversity along the western pacific oceans shores is the richest

 Why Bio-diversity is so important

1. it helps in the control of diseases and the protection of the nature

 2. it offers fundamental requirements like oxygen

3. it also understands our thoughts of nature

4. water food and fiber formation are all part of this process

 5. it encourages living organisms in respect of ecology

Bio-diversity Types

1. Genetic Bio-diversity

2. Species Bio-diversity

3. Ecosystem or Ecological Bio-Diversity

1. Genetic Bio-Diversity: In the most living form the change was seen in the DNA level of the identical species it is described as Genetic Bio-diversity.India has about 50,000 distinctive genetic kinds of rice and 10,000 types of mango. Some common types of rice are Basmati, HMT, African, and Kimini.

2. Species Bio-Diversity: It describes the distinctiveness or uniqueness of species in a given area. It is also known as Species richness and refers to the total number of species in a given area, or per unit area, The term “species evenness” provides the number of organisms belonging to the identical type. 

3. Ecosystem Bio-Diversity: Ecological Bio-diversity, also known as ecosystem Bio-diversity, refers to the deviation or uncertainties of species in a region’s environment. The Bio-diversity of biological communities found on the planet is referred to as ecosystem Bio-diversity.  

Ecological or Ecosystem Diversity Types

There are three varieties of it

 1. Alpha diversification

 2. Beta diversification

3. Gamma diversification

1. Alpha Bio-diversity

 The difference of life forms seen in a specific circumstance or area is described as Alpha bio-diversity. It is also a diversity in a homogeneous system.

B. Beta Bio-diversity: The deviation of life forms seen in basic level or species level at the two separate habitats or locations. The beta bio-diversity is the measurement of the difference of life forms in two areas or the variance of living creatures in two separate territories in heterogeneous ecosystems.

C.Gamma Bio-diversity: Gamma diversification refers to the uniqueness of life forms in any territory i.e the uniqueness of organisms in any area.

   Beta Bio-Diversity = Gamma Bio-Diversity/Alpha Bio-Diversity.

Question No. 1. Calculate the total No. of Beta Bio-diversity of living beings if Gamma Bio-diversity is 30 living beings and Alpha Bio-diversity is 10 living beings?

ANS. We know Beta Bio-Diversity =  Gamma Bio-diversity/Alpha Bio-diversity

The No. of living beings in Gamma Bio-Diversity is 30 living beings and the No. of living beings in Alpha Bio-Diversity is 10 living beings

 Beta Bio-Diversity = 30/10 , Beta Bio-Diversity = 3organisms

Question No. 2. Calculate Gamma Bio-Diversity if the Beta Bio-diversity of organisms is 35 species and Alpha Bio-diversity is 30 species?

Ans. We knowBeta Bio-Diversity =  Gamma Bio-diversity/Alpha Bio-diversity

The No. of species in Beta Bio-Diversity is 35 species and the No. of species in Alpha Bio-Diversity is 30 species.35 species = Gamma Bio-diversity/30 species

         Gamma Bio-Diversity =1050 species

Mega Bio-diversity countries

Mega bio-diversity regions contain a tremendous no. of organisms i.e a significant number of flora and fauna. The no. of living entities in mega diversification nations is dynamic. Following are the main 17 nations with a mega diversity

1. Australia

2. Brazil

 3. China

4. Colombia

 5. Congo

 6. Ecuador

 7. India

 8. Indonesia

 9. Madagascar

10. Malaysia

 11. Mexico

12. Guinea

13. Peru

14. the Philippines

 15. South Africa

16. The United States

17. Venezuela

Mega diverse country(India)

India has been discovered as being one of the countries with a great number of the majority of forms of life an enormous percentage of flora and fauna with a diverse range of types rich in Bio-diversity that is why it is described as a Mega Bio-diversity country                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

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