Biology: Definition, Branches, Botany, Zoology, Systematics, and Significance
The word biology comes from the Greek words bios, which means life, and logy, which means study, So biology is the study of life. Biology is also the science that studies life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and classification.
Aristotle is often referred regarded as the “Father of Biology. Aristotle was a third-century B.C. Greek philosopher. Carl Linnaeus is called the father of modern Biology.
Branches of Biology
Branches of biology include Botany, Zoology, Morphology, Anatomy, Taxonomy, Genetics, Cell Biology, Ecology, Evolution, Systematics etc
Botany is derived from the Greek word botane, which means grass or fodder. As a result, Botany might be defined as the study of plants. Botany is the study of plants from a scientific standpoint. It’s also known as phytology, plant science, or plant biology. Botany is the scientific study of plants. A botanist is often known as a plant scientist, plant biologist, or phytologist. Botanists are now studying 4,10,000 different land plant species, with 3,91,000 of them being vascular plants (flowering plants) and 20,000 being bryophytes.
Father of Botany
Theophrastus is known as the “Father of Botany,” and his works include “Enquiry into Plants and Their Causes”.Carl Linnaeus is credited with establishing modern botany. The German botanist Ferdinand Cohn is recognised as the “Mother of Botany.”
Zoology comes from the Greek words zoo, which means an animal, and logos, which means study. As a result, zoology is defined as the study of animals. The scientific study of animals is often known as zoology. A Zoologist or Animal Scientist is a person who studies Zoology. Aristotle, the father of zoology, is considered its originator.
The term “morphology” comes from the ancient Greek terms Morphos, which means “outside,” and logy, which means “study of.”As a result, morphology refers to the exterior structure of living entities such as plants and animals. A plant morphologist studies plant morphology, while an animal morphologist investigates animal morphology. We investigate the shape, size, colour, pattern, and other characteristics of plants and animals. Wilhelm Hofmeister, a German botanist, is renowned as the Father of Plant Morphology.
Anatomy is derived from the Greek word anatome “dissection,” which means “I Cut Up,” and “cut” signifies “open,” as in “interior”.Anatomy is the field of biology that studies the internal anatomy of living organisms, such as plants and animals. It can also be defined as the study of how living things are organised structurally. organs, tissues, cells, and so on
De Candolle coined the term “taxonomy” in 1813. Taxonomy is defined as the classification of living entities, such as plants and animals, according to law. Taxonomy, in simple terms, is the science of naming, describing, and classifying species, which encompasses all plants, animals, and bacteria on the earth. Taxonomy is the study of the categorization, identification, and nomenclature of living species.
The study of categorization principles and techniques, such as characterization, identification, nomenclature, and classification, is known as taxonomy.
Founder of taxonomy
Carl Linnaeus is the founder of taxonomy and is recognised as the Father of Taxonomy. For living organisms, he devised the Linnaean Taxonomy system. His classification, naming, and ranking method for organisms is still widely used today. The term “taxonomist” refers to someone who studies taxonomy.
Genetics and significance
The word “genetics” is derived from the Greek word “genesis,” which means “beginning”.Bateson, also known as the Father of Modern Genetics, coined the term “genetics” in 1906. Genetics is the branch of biology that studies genes, heredity, and genetic variations in living creatures. Genetics is the study of genes in living creatures in basic terms. Following the rediscovery of Mendel’s work in 1900, the branch of genetics was founded. Genetics is the most essential branch of biology, as it aids doctors in using parental testing techniques on infants. It also has a function to play in detecting birth abnormalities and impairments.
Gregor Johann Mendel, a famous biologist, is known as the “Father of Genetics.“Bateson is often regarded as the “Father of Modern Genetics.“T.H. Morgan, one of the great scientists, is recognised as the Father of Experimental Genetics, while Dodge is renowned as the Father of Haploid Genetics.
Cell Biology is a branch of biology that aids in the study of cells’ function, structure, chemistry, growth, reproduction, and genetics. Cell Biology is the study of cells in living creatures in basic terms. The structure and function of cells are the focus of most cell biology. The biologist George Palade is known as the “Father of Cell Biology.”
Ernst Haeckel, an ecologist, coined the term ecology in 1866. Ecology comes from the Greek words okios, which means “home or environment,” and logy, which means “study”. As a result, Ecology might be defined as the scientific study of living creatures and their surroundings. Ecology’s functional unit is the ecosystem. Ecology also studies how living species interact with their abiotic surroundings, such as air, water, soil, temperature, and so on. Ecology is also concerned with the study of nature’s household.
Ecology + Environment = Ecosystem.
Ecology’s fundamental unit of study is organisms.
Ecology’s best examples are Human Ecology and Niche Construction.
A few key elements concerning Evolution
About 25 billion years ago, the Universe began to form. About 4 billion years ago, life began. The conditions on Earth at the time of life’s inception are as follows:
1. Extremely hot temperatures, i.e. 800°C
2. Gases such as CH4, NH3, He, H2, and water vapours were present in the form of lighter components.
3. Heavy elements such as Fe (iron) and Nickel (Ni) are found in the Earth’s core.
4. The only source of energy was ultraviolet light, which favoured photochemical reactions.
5. During the period of evolution, there was no molecular oxygen in the atmosphere, i.e. the atmosphere was reduced.
Evolutionary theories that are important
1. Theory of special creation: One theory about the origin of life is the theory of special creation, which is based on religious beliefs that life was created in heaven by God and individuals were then sent to earth. The first man, according to Christ’s mythology, is Adam, and the first woman is Eve. Brahama is the creator of the universe, as well as the first man, Manu, and first lady, Shraddha, According to Hindu mythology. This theory is not based on any scientific data.
2. Theory of Abiogenesis: Van Helmont proposed this theory. According to this idea, life originated from the non-living substance, as Abio means non-living and Genesis means synthesis. Some scientists believed that the mud of the Nile River gave rise to diverse species, according to this belief. This theory, however, was not adopted.
3. Theory of Biogenesis: F.Redi proposed the Biogenesis Theory. The term “bio” refers to living things, whereas “genesis” refers to the process of creating something new. Thus, life began with pre-existing organisms, according to this hypothesis. An experiment was carried out to test this notion. The meat was placed in various jars and covered with various materials, with one remaining open. Houseflies lay their eggs in meat and larvae have been discovered. As a result, life arose from pre-existing entities.
4. Panspermatic Hypothesis: This theory is also known as the extraterrestrial theory. Some scientists believed that life originated in space and arrived on Earth in the form of structures known as spores, according to this idea.
5. Theory of chemogenetics.
The Modern Theory of Evolution is another name for it.
There are three aspects to this idea.
1. The process of chemogeny
1. Chemogeny. Chemogeny is the theory of chemical evolution. Oparin and Haldane explained it. According to them, the temperature at the time of Evolution was around 800°C, and then it began to drop down.UV rays and lightning were the only sources of energy. There were constant rains, which resulted in a formation known as Broth formation, which indicates water stuck.NH3, CH4, He, and water vapour were among the gases found. Simple chemical molecules like sugars, aldehydes, purines, pyrimidines, and fatty acids were produced, according to this theory. The presence of molecular oxygen was absent (no molecular oxygen was discovered), implying that the atmosphere was diminished.
2. Biogeny: Biogeny is the process by which biomolecular formation occurs. It refers to the evolution of molecules that we can replicate. When simple molecules congregate or combine to generate complex biomolecules, this indicates that processes are occurring.DNA generates RNA, which generates proteins.
3. Cogenogeny: Cogenogeny refers to the genesis and evolution of living forms. Protobionts are formed when proteins and broth combine to form aggregates, however, they do not reproduce. It continues to develop Eiobionts or Co-accervates, which reproduce through budding, which is its first basic biological feature. Co-accervates release oxygen into the atmosphere as chemo-heterotrophs, chemophototrophs, and anaerobic organisms. The first aerobic organisms are thought to be cyanobacteria
Carl Linnaeus’s work “Systema Naturae” was the first to mention systematics. The word systematics comes from the Greek word systema, which means “organisation of living organisms.”As a result, systematics can be defined as the study of distinct organisms’ classification and evolutionary relationships with other organisms.