Wine: Mango Wine, Banana Wine, and Apple Cider
Oenology is the study of wine and winemaking. Traditionally, A person who produces wine is referred to as a vintner or winemaker. Using a variety of yeasts, crushed grapes can be fermented to create wine, an alcoholic beverage. Apple and berry fruits are sometimes employed in the production of apple wine and elderberry wine. The starch-based ingredients, such as rice and barely, can also be utilised to make beer-like wine. However, grapes are the primary ingredient in wine production all over the world. Some of the world’s largest wine producers include the US, France, Italy, and Spain. The production of wine around the globe is dominated by Italy, which produces approximately 5000 tonnes annually, and France, which produces around 4700 tonnes annually, which ranks second. Wines can be classified as Red, White, Sweet, Sparkling, or Deserting. Typically, the alcohol content of red, white, and sparkling wines ranges from 10 to 14 percent by volume, while that of dessert wines ranges from 15 to 20 percent. Producing still wine (without carbonation) and sparkling wine are the two broad categories into which winemaking can be separated (with carbonation – natural or injected)
The primary fermentation is when the yeast cells expand while consuming the carbohydrates in the must to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. Both the flavour of the finished product and the fermentation’s progress is impacted by the temperature during this process. Usually, the temperature is between 22 and 25 °C for red wines and 15 and 18 °C for white wines. To get a 12 percent alcohol concentration, they must have about 24 percent sugars because every gram of sugar that is transformed yields about half a gram of alcohol. With the help of a specialised hydrometer known as a saccharometer, the sugar content of the must is determined from the measured density, or the must weight. Sugar can be added to grapes if their sugar content is insufficient to produce the appropriate alcohol percentage (capitalization). Capitalization in the production of commercial wine is governed by regional laws.
Wine From Tropical and Subtropical Fruits
Numerous tropical and subtropical fruits, including grapes, apples, pears, apricots, berries, peaches, cherries, oranges, mangoes, bananas, and pineapples, release sizable amounts of juice when squeezed. Fruit juices can become wines by going through the fermentation process. The grape has, nevertheless, historically served as the best raw material for manufacturing wine, despite efforts to make wine from other fruits. Other fruit wines are prepared in a manner that is quite similar to how white and red grape wines are made. Two facts explain the disparities. In addition to the fact that some fruits’ pulps are more difficult to separate the sugar and other soluble elements from than grapes’, most fruits’ juices contain less sugar and more acids than grape juice does.
The first of the aforementioned issues are resolved by using specialised machinery to extensively slice or disintegrate fruits like berries, which is then followed by pressing to get juice from the finely separated pulp. The second issue is resolved by adding water to dilute the excess acid and sugar to make up for the lack of sugar (Amerine et al., 1980).
The Mango, considered to be India’s National fruit, takes up nearly 60% of the country’s total land planted in agriculture. In India, there are 25 different varieties of mangoes that are prized for their light to a bright yellow hue, sweet and delectable flavour, high nutritional value (high levels of amino acids, a good source of vitamins A and B6, and low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium), as well as their competitive market prices (Spreer et al., 2009). It has a great flavour with a rich, sensual, aromatic scent and a delicious balance of sweetness and acidity. In addition to having a large number of organic acids and sugar (16–18% w/v), mangoes also include antioxidants like beta-carotene (as Vitamin A, 4,800 IU). The three main sugars found in ripe mangos are sucrose, glucose, and fructose (Anonymous 1962). Citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, succinic acid, and other organic acids are present in the unripe fruit. In contrast, malic acid is the dominant organic acid in ripe fruits (Giri et al., 1953). Mango juice is advised as a restorative tonic when combined with aromatics because it includes significant amounts of vitamins A and C, which are helpful in heat apoplexy. Mangoes with the higher initial -carotene concentrations are beneficial as cancer-preventative foods (Anonymous 1962). According to Gathambiri (2009), the main cause of the 45 percent post-harvest loss was an overabundance of fruits on the market during the peak season. One of the alternate methods to use and turn the surplus output into a profitable commodity is to make wine from mangoes.
According to Czyhrinciwk (1966), who described the technology used to make mango wine, the mango is a fruit that is well suited to the creation of high-quality white semisweet table wine. Twenty types of Indian mangoes were evaluated by Onkarayya and Singh (1984) and Kulkarni et al. (1980) to make wine. Their publications claim that mango wine is similar to grape wine in terms of its qualities, but they do not provide information regarding the method of vinification or the chemical make-up of mango wine. Mango juice, which has a high carbohydrate content, can be processed and preserved in one way by fermenting it into wines.Using locally isolated Schizosaccharomyces species of palm wine and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Obisanya et al. (1987) studied the fermentation of mango juice into wine and concluded that Schizosaccharomyces yeasts were best for producing sweet, and table mango wine
The fruits must first be pulped to make wine. By adding cane sugar, the TSS is increased to 20°Brix, typically, 100 ppm SO2 is employed, and pectinase enzyme (0.5 percent) is added to the pulp. The majority of the pulp is fermented using S. cerevisiae for 7–10 days at 22°C at a rate of 10%. The wine is treated with bentonite after racking and filtration before being bottled with 100 ppm potassium metabisulphite. After five days of fermentation, the fermentation is stopped by adding 10 percent (v/v) mango brandy, which results in the sweet fortified wine known as “Dashehari.” Cane sugar is added to sweet wine at a rate of 5g/L. Mango wines typically have low tannin levels and have an alcohol percentage of between 5 and 13 percent. From overripe mango fruit, respectable table wine was also produced (Akingbala et al., 1992). Mango wine often has the following chemical attributes:
TA of 0.38 percent (as citric acid), pH of around 3.70, ash of 0.27g/100g, extract of 0.41g/100g, soluble solids of 5.0 °Brix, specific gravity at 30°C of 0.98, and 13.82 percent (v/v) ethanol.
In 2005, Reddy and Reddy created a method for extracting mango juice using pectinase and described the ethanol and other volatile components of mango wine. They concluded that the concentration of the aromatic components in mango wine was on par with that of grape wine. Reddy and Reddy (2009) investigated the production, optimization, and characterization of wine from ten mango varieties (Mangifera indica Linn.), including “Alphonso,” “Raspuri,” “Banganpalli,” “Totapuri,” “Allampur Banesha,” “Neelam,” “Mulgoa,” “Suvarnarekha,” “Rumani,” and “Jahangir,” which are widely available and grown in southern India
Using several temperatures (20°C, 25°C, 30°C, and 35°C) and yeast concentrations, Musyimi et al. (2013) made wine from the Apple Mango variety (0.0065 percent , 0.01 percent , 0.05 percent and 0.1 percent ). The kinetics of fermentation was dramatically accelerated by both the rise in temperature and the concentration of yeast. The sugars were not entirely utilised during fermentation, though, because of the high temperature (35°C) and yeast concentration (0.1%). The largest alcohol production was obtained at low temperatures (25°C), whereas the lowest yield was obtained at high temperatures (35°C) (6.93 percent ). The best qualities for making Apple mango wine using wine yeast were obtained at a yeast concentration of 0.05 percent and a fermentation temperature of 25°C (Saccharomyces cerevisae).
The Genus Musa spp. and family Musaceae contain the tropical fruit known as the Banana, which is widely cultivated in India. Before the advent of written history, nature had already given man food, tools, and shelter. After rice, wheat, and maize, Bananas are the fourth most important crop, with an annual market value of almost $5 billion (Sunday Monitor, 2007). For many tribes in East Africa, traditional banana juice extraction and beer (tonto) production are significant social and economic activities (Stover and Simmonds, 1987).In bananas, you’ll find high-nutrient sources of carbs, potassium-rich minerals, and vitamins B1, B2, B3, B12, C, and E. It can be turned into flour, chips, and dried fruit after being dried (Gopinath, 1995). Bananas are pounded to make porridge and are also used to make beer. The fibre is used to create carpets, sacks, and ropes. Banana peels are converted into paper and paperboard sheets (Obaedo et al., 2009). Banana fruits are extremely perishable and heat-sensitive. Since bananas are available all year long, drinking banana wine increases the fruit’s ability to be turned into useful byproducts and offers a rich supply of vitamins. The sugars and fibre found in bananas make them a good source of energy.
Bananas are cooked to produce juice, which is then combined with wine yeast, citric acid, sugar, and maize flour and left to ferment for two days in a pot to create banana wine. It is then placed into a jerry can with an airlock and left there for 14–30 days before being filtered into a different can using a filtered syphon. Before being consumed, it is preserved for a while.
The technology employed in Uganda’s traditional method of making banana beer was based on local expertise, such as the use of spear grass and feet to extract banana juice and the inclusion of sorghum flour as an adjunct after the juice had been fermented into a banana beer. According to the method described by Kundu et al., Banana (Musa peradisiaca) fruit can also be transformed into wine (1976). They made wine from banana juice and pulp using dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:0, and found that the alcohol and total phenol content of the wine are inversely related to the level of dilution, whereas the sugar content is directly proportional.
To make a pulp, bananas are peeled and blended in a blender for a period of two to three minutes. To avoid browning and the development of unwanted microorganisms, potassium metabisulphite (100 ppm) can be added. The temperature for fermentation is 18–10°C. Kotecha et al. (1994) performed preliminary tests to improve the extraction of banana juice using various concentrations of pectinase enzymes and various incubation times at 282°C. These tests served as the basis for choosing a 0.2 percent pectinase addition and a 4-hour incubation period for extracting the juice from the pulp. Centrifugation was employed to separate the juice, and the clear juice was utilised to make wine (Kundu et al., 1976). Overripe banana juice recovery was higher (67.6%) than that of regular fruits (60.2 percent ). Overripe banana fruit can be used to produce high-quality wine (Kotecha et al., 1994; Akingbala et al., 1992). According to Kotecha et al. (1994), the chemical makeup of banana (Musa peradisiaca) wine was as follows:
TSS of 10.2 to 0.2 percent, the acidity of 0.88 to 0.06 percent, reducing sugars of 3.18 to 0.16 percent, tannins of 0.044 to 0.002 percent, and alcohol of 6.06 to 0.06 percent (v/v) are the other characteristics. While Akingbala et al. (1992) reported that a Musa acuminata wine had the following chemical characteristics: 13.98 percent (v/v) ethanol, 0.33 percent (as citric acid) TA, 0.9810 specific gravity at 30 degrees Celsius, 5.2 degrees Brix of soluble solids, 0.43 grammes per 100 grammes of extract, and a pH of 3.85.
While researching the production and quality of banana wine, Akubor et al. (2003) improved the juice to 180 °Brix and discovered that during fermentation, the T.S.S. reduced and titratable acidity increased with lengthening juice fermentation. Following a 14-day fermentation period, the resulting wine showed 4.8°Brix T.S.S. and 0.85 percent titratable acidity. Shanmugasundaram et al. (2005) investigated how the wine-making procedure affected the quality of banana pulp and juice. During the 28-day fermentation process, they saw that the Brix of T.S.S. must be made from the pulp of the Poovan, Rasthali, and Robusta types dropped from 23 to 8.0, 6.9, and 5.4, respectively. A drop of up to 6.5, 4.5, and 3.9 °Brix was seen in must made from the juice of these types. The wine is made from banana cv. Robusta juice and pulp and held for 90 days at room temperature (28 2°C) and refrigerator temperatures (5°C) showed a faster rate of fermentation during the first week of fermentation as well as no change in T.S.S.
Using pectinase enzyme and two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3283 and NCIM 3046, Sevda et al. (2010) produced wine from ripe bananas with acceptable flavour, taste, clarity, and general features.
Apple cider and wine
Mild alcoholic beverages made from the apple (Malus domestica) fruit are healthier than those made from distilled spirits (Bhutani et al., 1989; Gasteineau et al., 1970; Joshi and Thakur, 1994). Cider is more closely linked to the apple fruit than any other alcoholic beverage (Amerine et al., 1967; Joshi, 1995; Sandhu and Joshi, 1994). Cider, a low-alcohol beverage made by fermenting apple juice, is thought to have been manufactured for more than 2000 years. Cider is referred to by various names around the world, including cidre (France), sidre (Italy), sidra (Spain), and Apfel wein (Germany and Switzerland). Cider can be either dry or sweet. Cider is divided into soft cider (1–5% alcohol concentration) and hard cider (6-7%) based on the alcohol content (Downing, 1989; Joshi, 1995). Sweet and still cider typically don’t include CO2, whereas dry cider has little sugar and roughly 6-7% alcohol by volume. Sparkling ciders feature low sugar levels and CO2 (Joshi et al., 2000). A temperature between 15 and 18 oC is ideal for the fermentation of cider. In addition to controlling the microorganisms in the must (Amerine et al., 1967) and ensuring a clean fermentation, sulphur dioxide also protects the juice from browning due to enzymatic activity (Beach, 1957). (Poll, 1993). A cider with an appropriate level of alcohol and acidity was created by the simultaneous fermentation of apple juice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (O’Reilly and Scot, 1993). Although historically oak barrels were used for this purpose, modern fermentation tanks for cider are primarily made of stainless steel (Downing, 1989). Ciders can be stored in bulk at a temperature of 40°C. The cider is racked and filtered after fermentation. Most suspended matter settles out during age, leaving the liquid transparent. This clear liquid can then be clarified using bentonite, casein, or gelatin, followed by filtration. Ciders need to be pasteurised after maturing and clarity for 20 to 30 minutes at 600 °C, or SO2 can be used (Joshi et al., 2000). Apple wine, another product produced from apple juice through alcoholic fermentation, has 11 to 14 percent alcohol. Apple juice or concentrate is the primary ingredient in wine, just like in cider, but since wine has a higher alcohol level than cider, it must be improved with sugar or juice concentrate (Joshi et al., 2000). Because the must’s amino acids do not degrade, the addition of ammonium salts to the fermenting solution lowers the increased alcohol production in wine (Reazin et al., 1970). When creating apple wine, it is advised to wash and smash the fruit before adding 50 ppm of SO2 and 10% water (Vogt, 1977). Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate was added, which enhanced the fermentability (Joshi and Sandhu, 1996).