Wine: Classification, Red Wine, White Wine, Pink Wine and Wine Making Technology
One of the world’s top producers of fruits is India. Fruits are among the most essential foods for humans because they are not only nourishing but also necessary for maintaining good health. Fresh and processed fruits both enhance the nutritional value of our diet and supply necessary nutrients like vitamins, minerals, carbs, etc. Fresh fruit postharvest loss is one of the major issues facing tropical nations like India. Nearly 35 to 40 percent of horticulture yield is lost due to inappropriate post-harvest handling and inadequate processing facilities. India experiences post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables worth more than Rs 2 lakh crore annually, which is mostly due to the lack of food processing facilities, sophisticated cold storage facilities, and a callous attitude toward addressing the serious issue of post-harvest losses. Compared to 40 to 50 percent in other nations, India’s fruit and vegetable preservation industry use less than 2% of the nation’s total fruit and vegetable production for product conversion.
The generation of novel goods with altered physicochemical and sensory properties, including flavour and nutritional components, can be accomplished through the use of fermentation. Fermentation of lactic, acetic, and alcoholic acids is crucial for producing high-quality goods. Out of these, alcoholic fermentation is frequently used for the creation of drinks with significant alcohol content. Since the dawn of time, people have consumed fermented beverages.
Any drink that has ethanol in it is considered to be alcoholic. Beers, wines, and spirits distilled beverages including Whiskey, Rum, Gin, and Vodka are separated into three broad categories for taxation and manufacturing control.
Beer is created through the fermentation of starch with the addition of yeast and malted cereal starch, particularly barley, corn, rye, wheat, or a blend of various grains. Hops are typically used to add flavour to the beer. It has an alcohol content of 4–8% and 100 mL of it has between 28 and 73 kcal. Distilling ethanol from the fermentation of grains, fruits, or vegetables produces distilled alcoholic beverages. They are manufactured from fermented cereal and potato mashes, sugarcane juice, molasses, and barley and rye malt. Distilled alcoholic beverages typically contain between 40% and 60% alcohol.
Fruit wines are alcoholic beverages that are not distilled and are typically produced from grapes or other nutritive, more flavorful, and somewhat stimulating fruits such as peaches, plums, apricots, bananas, elderberries, or black current, among others. These grapes go through a period of ageing and fermentation. They typically range in alcohol concentration from 5 to 13 percent. Fruit-based wines frequently bear their names. Other than water and milk, no other beverage has enjoyed as much acceptance and respect throughout history as wine. Wine is a food that may be transported and preserved in the current environment and has a flavour similar to fresh fruit. The majority of the nutrients included in the original fruit juice are still present in wine because it is a fermented, undistilled beverage made from fruit. Because of the release of amino acids and other nutrients from yeast during fermentation, wine now has a higher nutritional value. Fruit wines have an energy content of 70–90 kcal per 100 mL and contain 8–11% alcohol and 2–3% sugar.
Classification of Wine
The typical components of wine include Ethyl alcohol, sugar, acids, higher alcohols, tannins, aldehydes, esters, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, anthocyanins, and minor components like flavouring chemicals (Amerine et al., 1980). This item, which was described in the Bible and other records from Asian nations, is arguably the oldest fermented beverage.
The wines are divided into natural wines (9–14% alcohol) and Dessert and Aperitif wines based on a variety of factors, including cultivar, fruit ripening stage, the chemical makeup of juice, use of additives to the must, vinification methods, and wine ageing (15-21 percent alcohol). In contrast to sweet wine, cherries, vermouth, and port wines, which are classified as Dessert and Appetiser wines, Natural wines include Dry wine, sweet table wine, speciality wine, champagne, muscat, and Burgundy wines (Amerine and Singleton, 1972).
Red and white wines are the most well-known varieties of wine and rose and sparkling wines are next in popularity. Other wine specialities exist throughout the world, like the exceptionally flavorful Portuguese Port Wine, which chefs frequently employ in their signature dishes. Several groupings that are simple to remember can be used to categorise a variety of wines.
All wines can be categorised as Grape wine, Fruit wine, Berry wine, Vegetable wine, Plant wine, Raisin wine, etc. depending on the manufacturing method.
Grape wine is produced purely from grapes, and no additional materials may be used during the production process (an exception is made only for sugar and oak barrels).
Fruit wines are fermented alcoholic beverages that can be prepared from several base materials than grapes and may also have flavours from various fruits, flowers, and herbs. These wines are created using juice from various fruits, including pears, apples, bananas, papayas, mangos, and jackfruit. Cherries that can contribute enough acidity to wine are typically used to make cherry wine.
Wine made from plants such as rose petals, rhubarb, parsnips, and trees like maple, birch, melons, and watermelons is known as Plant wine. The dried grapes are used to make raisins wine (raisins).
Wine made from multiple varieties of grapes and wine components is known as Multisort wine.
Red, white, and pink wines are divided into categories based on the colour of the fruit and the time of fermentation.
Red grapes, which are more closely related to black in hue, are used to make red wine. Red wines come in a wide variety of varieties. This is regarded as the most traditional wine in the wine kingdom, combining the delectable red fruits with a variety of fragrances including wood, eucalyptus, chocolate, and even notes of mint. Most black grapes have greenish-white juice, the red colour is caused by anthocyanin pigments found in the grape’s skin.
Major Types of Red Wine
Red wines can be divided into six main groups. Red Italian grapes are used to make the wine known as barbera. It is a well-liked table wine that has rounded fruitiness and a high acidity level with little tannin. Pizza, pasta with tomato sauce, and hard cheeses go nicely with this dry red wine. Wine made from the Cabernet Franc vine, which is related to the Cabernet Sauvignon fruit and has a modest blend of plum and blackberry notes, is very gentle and accessible. Anything goes with merlot.
Black pepper and blackcurrant spice tastes can be found in Shiraz wine (Syrah). For a better pairing, it is served with meat meals. As it ages, Cabernet Sauvignon wine can become smooth and subdued while still being strong and crisp. Especially among the French, Australians, Californians, and Chileans, it is one of the most well-known wine varieties in the world. Sayrah and Cabernet Sauvignon go incredibly well together. With a robust taste of currant and bell pepper, this elegant French wine is a blend of Cabernet Franc and Merlot. Dry red wine called Malbec is distinguished by its intense tannin and dark colour. Pinot Noir, a different dry red wine, is produced from black pinot noir grapes. Noir is usually a light to medium-bodied red wine with a wide range of meal combination options. This wine is pricey and uncommon. Red grapes called Zinfandel are used to make wine. Strong tannins, high alcohol levels, and mildly spicy flavours are all characteristics of this sort of wine.
Depending on whether it contains the grape peel or only the juice, white wine is frequently yellow, gold, or straw. White wine can be produced in Europe as well as many other regions, including Australia, California, New Zealand, South Africa, and so on, by the alcoholic fermentation of the non-coloured pulp of green or gold-coloured grapes or from chosen red grape juice. It is processed to keep the finished product’s colour a translucent yellow. During the warmer months of the year, white wines frequently acquire appeal since they frequently taste lighter, sharper, and more pleasant than red wine. White meats and fish are frequently paired with white wines.
Major Types of White Wine
The Chardonnay vine, famous for yielding some of the world’s best white wines and also used to make champagne, produces chardonnay, a dry white wine. The delicate, acidic flavour of a dry white wine made from the Sauvignon Blanc grape makes it a wonderful match for salads and chicken meals. For a more delicate flavour, Sauvignon Blanc and Sémillon grapes are frequently combined. To prepare the palate for food, Gewurztraminer, a somewhat sweet white wine with a smooth flavour and rich scent, is recommended. Wine made from the Muscat grape varietal, which has a fruity, sweet aroma and flavour, is known as muscat or Moscato. A dry white wine known as Pinot Grigio is one of the most delectable varieties of wine. It is full of taste and has a mildly spicy undertone. Depending on the region where it is grown, the flavour of this wine can range from being light and crisp to rich and nuanced.
Reisling wine can range from dry to sweet, although the Reisling grape tends to produce softer, richer, fruitier wines, including ice wine, which is produced from frozen grapes. Reisling wine has delectable citrus, apple, and pear tastes.
A dry, sweet white wine that is frequently combined with a Sauvignon Blanc wine that has a flavour that is utterly unrelated to a more rounded, well-balanced flavour. It is also known as Sémillon wine and is used to make premium dessert wines. Rhône region of France produces Viognier wine, a dry white wine made from exceptional, uncommon grapes. Before supper, viognier wine is the finest consumed.
Grape skin is removed from pink wine, which has a light pink colour, as soon as the fermentation process begins. These wines are produced using the same technique as white wines from a blend of “white” and “black” grapes. Wines are divided into dining rooms and fixtures according to their sugar and alcohol content. Fortified wines come in the following varieties: strong (up to 1-14 percent sugar, 17-20 percent alcohol), dessert sweet (up to 5-12 percent sugar, 14-16 percent alcohol), sweet (up to 14-20 percent sugar, 15-17 percent alcohol), liqueur (up to 21-35 percent sugar, 12-17 percent alcohol), and flavours (sugar – up to 6-16 percent , alcohol – 16-18 percent ).
Technology in Wine Making
According to Island et al. (2000), Jackson (2000), and Ribéreau-Gayon et al. (2000), there are primarily three categories of operations involved in creating wine: pre-fermentation, fermentation, and post-fermentation processes. Pre-fermentation is the process of crushing the fruit to release juice in the case of wines manufactured from grapes. White wine’s juice and skin are separated, whereas red wine’s skins are not removed before the juice is pressed. Typically, sedimentation or centrifugation are used to clarify juice for white wine. Once the juice has been clarified, yeast is introduced to start the fermentation process. The pulp, skins, and seeds of the grapes used to make red wine are maintained together after crushing and for all or part of the fermenting process. Colour and flavour are extracted in this way. In the production of red wine, yeast is added to the mashed pulp (must).
The juice’s carbohydrates are changed during fermentation into alcohol and carbon dioxide. During the fermentation process, yeasts use sugars. A stalled fermentation happens when yeasts do not use all of the available sugar, causing the rate of fermentation to slow down or stop entirely. Racking, filtration, and/or centrifugation are methods that can be used to clarify. Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) may be added to the anaerobic conditions of fermentation to supply the nitrogen needed for yeast development in non-traditional winemaking methods. After fermentation has reached the required stage or is finished, post-fermentation procedures are carried out. In stainless steel or oak barrels, the wine is racked off the yeast lees at this point. The wine may be filtered, cold stabilised, fined, and/or blended during the storage period. To help clarify wines, a variety of fining agents, including enzymes, bentonite, diatomaceous earth, egg albumen, etc., can be bought commercially and applied. Wine continues to alter as it ages, and when the process is complete, it is filtered and bottled.