Cynodon Dactylon (Indian Doab): Classification Distribution Characteristics Chemical composition and Uses
Common name: Durva grass, Bermuda grass, Dog’s Tooth grass, Indian Doab, Scutch grass, Bahama grass,
Cynodon Dactylon (Doob grass) is considered sacred grass in India since it is used to feed sacred cows. Doob’s Sanskrit name is durva, which means “chopped or eaten by the animal.” The plants vilva, durva, and tulsi, which are revered by Lord Sankara, Ganesa, and Visnu, respectively, cure vata, pitta, and Kapha dosas. Hindus use the leaves durva to worship the God Ganesha. Since ancient times, this plant has been known for its cooling, haemostatic, diuretic, and tonic effects, as documented by Dhanvantari, Kaiyadeva, and Raja Nighantus. Durva comes in two varieties, white and green, according to Ayurvedic scriptures. Cynodon plant is a pungent, bitter, aromatic, hot, appetiser, vulnerary, anthelmintic, antipyretic, and alexiteric, according to Ayurveda, India’s traditional pharmacopoeia.
The perennial grass C. dactylon (L.) Pers. has a wide range of therapeutic qualities. It’s grown all across the tropics and subtropics. The entire plant, including the rootstalk, is utilised for medical purposes. It has a lot of untapped medicinal, ornamental, and other potentials. Aside from its important applications, the species is a natural resource that must be researched. This review is presented for this purpose to provide adequate updated information about pharmacognostic characters, traditional uses, chemical constituents, and a summary of various pharmacognostic and pharmacological activities of C. dactylon, which may serve as a useful tool for researchers to properly evaluate the plant to explore the hidden areas and their practical clinical applications, which can be used for the welfare of mankind.
Doob Grass can be found all over the world. It thrives in warm areas between 30 degrees south and 30 degrees north latitude.
C. dactylon thrives in a variety of soil types, including light sandy, medium loam, and heavy clay. It may grow in extremely acidic, alkaline, or saline soils, but not in shady areas. It necessitates moisture in the soil. This plant is primarily employed as a lawn or forage grass throughout the warm-temperate and sub-tropical world, particularly in saline settings, according to many workers.
1. Doob grass is a creeping plant with a gritty texture and a light green colour.
2. The root, stem, and leaves are the three sections. It spreads quickly and forms a dense carpet of roots wherever a node meets the ground. It can also reproduce via underground roots.
3. It has a deep root system that can reach 47 to 59 inches (120-150 cm) deep in drought conditions. The majority of the root mass is found 24 inches (60 cm) below ground level.
4. It has grey-green blades that are short and have rough edges, measuring 1 to 4 inches (3-10 cm) in length.
5. The erect stems can reach a height of 0.3 to 1.3 feet (0.1-0.4 m). The stems are slightly flattened and purple in hue when inflorescent. It has a pleasant mucilaginous flavour and has no odour.
6. C. dactylon is a perennial creeping herb with slender and wiry stems (culms). Leaves are narrowly linear or non-subdivided, acute, and velvety, measuring 2-10 cm × 1.25-3 mm. Spikes 2-6, green or purplish, diverge from a slender ascending peduncle. The grains are 1.05 mm in length. August-October is the time for flowering and fruiting (also throughout the year).
Stem: Willowy, horizontal, 1 mm thick, jointed leafy, very smooth, yellowish-green stem. Leaf: 2 to 10 cm long and 1.25 to 3 mm wide, narrowly linear or un-subdivided, sharply acute more or less opaque, generally strikingly opaque in barren shoots and at stem base; coated light, sometimes bearded, ligule a very fine ciliate ring.
Leaf: The epidermis of the leaf lamina is approximately square to oval, with an unevenly shaped outer wall. Bulliform cells on the dorsal side are gathered together and lie at the bottom of a well-defined groove in between the veins; these cells have thin walls and lack chlorophyll that extends deep into the mesophyll. Palisade and spongy parenchyma of the mesophyll are not distinguished. The mesophyll is broken by one or two thin-walled colourless cells extending from the bundle sheath to the thin-walled parenchymatous cells at the upper and lower epidermis. Except for the median bundle, vascular bundles are arranged in a row. The bundle sheath is made up of isodiametric parenchyma cells with thin walls that contain chloroplast.
It includes 12.4 per cent of essential oil triticin. Glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and sugars are the other chemical ingredients. Agropyrene, arunodin, furfural, furfural alcohol, s-ionine, 2-(4’hydroxy phenyl) propionic acid, 2-(3’methoxy-4’hydroxy-phenyl) propionic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy benzoic acid, phytol, stigmasterol-D-glucoside, stigmasterol acetate, phago – stimulating phytone (6,10-14-trimethyl pentadecane-2-one). Triacontane, docosanol, tetracosanol, hexacosanol, octacosanol, eicosanic acid, and docosanoic acid are all found in cuticular wax.
1. Cynodon dactylon is used as a folk treatment for diarrhoea, bronchitis, anasarca, calculus, dropsy, haemorrhage, urogenital diseases, cough, headache, sores, cancer, carbuncles, convulsions, cramps, cystitis, dysentery, epilepsy, haemorrhoids, leucoderma, hypertension, hysteria, asthma, tumours, measles
2. It can also help youngsters with pains, inflammations, toothaches, and grippe. The plant’s expressed juice acts as an astringent and is used to halt bleeding in cuts and wounds.
3. Epitaxis is performed using a plant paste combined with honey. Menorrhagia can be effectively treated by taking the plant’s juice with honey 2-3 times a day for a few days.
The use of a plant extract paste applied locally to the lower abdomen prevents severe vaginal bleeding. Urine retention can be treated with a decoction of Cynodon dactylon combined with sugar.
1. Protective activity for the heart
Garjani, A., and coworkers (2009) looked at how Cynodon dactylon rhizomes were utilised in folk medicine to treat heart failure. C. dactylon showed a significant protective effect against right heart failure, owing to its positive inotropic action and improved cardiac functioning.
2. Anti-arrhythmic properties
Anti-arrhythmic activity is the second type of anti-arrhythmic activity.
In an isolated rat, Najafi, M., and Gajrani, A. (2008) studied the antiarrhythmic properties of C. dactylon against ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R)-induced arrhythmias.
3. Anti-inflammatory properties
Cynodon dactylon is one of the ten auspicious plants in Ayurveda’s Dasapushpam category. In India, Cynodon dactylon L. has traditionally been used to treat a variety of chronic inflammatory disorders.
4. Wound Healing: Charde tested Druva gritha for wound healing properties in male Wister rats using an incision and excision wound model. Druva gritha stimulates wound contraction and lowers the time to closure, exhibiting healing capacity comparable to Framycetin sulphate 1% cream.