Orange jasmine Plant (Murraya paniculata): Distribution, Morphological Characters, Chemical constituents, and Medicinal Uses

Orange jasmine Plant (Murraya paniculata): Distribution, Morphological Characters

 CLASSIFICATION

Kingdom: Plantae

 Division: Tracheophyta

 Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Sapindales

Family: Rutaceae

Genus: Murraya

Species : Murraya Paniculata (Linn.) Jack

Common Name: Orange jasmine, Satin wood, Honey bush, China box,

INTRODUCTION

Thousands of years have passed before plants were employed for health and medicine. Plants were used as remedies by humans at least 60,000 years ago, according to fossil evidence. Traditional medical methods integrating plants as a form of therapy developed from that time forward. On Earth, there are approximately 250,000 higher plant species. Between 35,000 and 70,000 species are thought to have been utilized medicinally. Natural medicines continue to be used by the majority of the world’s population in underdeveloped countries. Natural remedies are frequently utilized to provide first-line and basic health care to individuals in both rural and urban regions.

Murraya Paniculata

In India, jack (orange jasmine) is known as “Kamini.” It can be utilized as a backdrop or as a focal point. It can be pruned into animals and other shapes (topiary), pruned into tree forms, potted, or nurtured as a bonsai. The sapwood has a bright yellow tint, while the heartwood is a light brown color, fine-grained, and suitable for little-turned items. Branches or stems with a diameter of 2 to 5 cm. The suitability of fuelwood in India’s Himalayan area was assessed.

Distribution

Murraya paniculata is the most widely distributed Murraya species, appearing in the tropics and subtropics of Asia and Oceania. It can be found across much of India and the Andaman Islands, up to a height of 1500 meters. From India and Sri Lanka to Myanmar (Burma), southern China and Taiwan, Thailand, and eastward via the Malesian region to northeastern Australia and Caledonia. The therapeutic benefit of this species has been discovered all over its range.

Morphological Characters

1. It’s an evergreen shrub or small tree with a stem diameter of 13 cm and a height of 2 to 3 meters.

2. The leaves are carried on stalks and are alternately distributed along the stems (i.e. petioles). These leaves are once-compound (i.e. pinnate) and have 3-9 leaflets. They are 6-11.5 cm long.

3. The glossy leaflets are narrowly oval (narrow-elliptic) to somewhat egg-shaped in outline (1.5-7 cm long and 1.2-3 cm broad) (i.e. ovate or obovate). They feature complete borders, cuneate (wedge-shaped) bases, and pointy points (i.e. acuminate apices).

 4. Multiple stems grow from the ground level on older orange jasmine.

5.  Taproots with lateral roots and a large number of fine roots support the stems.

6. The stem bark is grey and fissured, and it becomes rough as it becomes older. Its younger stems are glabrous (hairless) or coated with small hairs (i.e. minutely pubescent). The stems of older plants become woody and turn a brown or grey color as they age. They can grow to be up to 13 cm in diameter and can become fissured and rough over time.

7. At the terminals of the branches or in the higher leaf forks, the fragrant flowers are borne in clusters of up to eight blossoms (i.e. terminal or upper axillary cymes).

8. Each flower has five green sepals and five bent backward white petals (10-18 mm long) (i.e. recurved). They also have 10 stamens, an ovary with a style, and a stigma that is spherical (i.e. capitate).

9.  Flowering can occur at any time of year, frequently in reaction to rain, but it is most common from late winter to late spring.

11.  Fruit is 1 cm long, and gleaming red elliptic fruits grow. The bitter, watery pulp has one or two pale green seeds embedded.

11. Seeds, Depending on whether there are one or two seeds per fruit, the seeds are tear-drop shaped, spherical, or flattened on one side.

Chemical constituents

Flavanoids, alkaloids, Spiroquinazoline alkaloids, Coumarins, Isoflavonoids, Essential oils, Polysaccharides, and fatty acids were among the chemical constituents identified from various portions of the plant, including roots, stem, bark, leaves, and fruits.

Medicinal Uses

Murraya paniculata (L). Anti-implantation, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, immunoreactivity, anti-infertility, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antifeedant, dysentery, and stimulant are only a few of the pharmacological actions of this plant.

Oestrogenic activity: Yuehchukene, an alkaloid derived from Murraya paniculata roots, possesses oestrogenic activity, as proven by 100 percent anti-implantation effects in female mice at 1-3 days gestation. The weight of the uterus increased when fed to young female mice.

Anticholinesterase action: Two chemicals isolated from Murraya paniculata leaves, murranganone, and paniculatin, was discovered to have anticholinesterase inhibitory activity. Minumicrolin, a chemical isolated from Murraya paniculata aerial portions, displays modest butyryl anticholinesterase inhibitory action.

Analgesic activity: The bark of Murraya paniculata extracted with equal parts petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol has a considerable analgesic effect in albino mice, according to the research. We expect that future research into the plant’s analgesic properties, as well as its active ingredients, will be conducted.

Action Against Insects: In tests on adult male and female Callosobruchus maculatus, the leaf-derived petroleum ether fraction was found to be more hazardous than ethyl acetate fractions. Males were more prone than females to infection. It calls for more research into its insect-control capabilities.

Antidiabetic: An ethanol extract of leaves was tested on STZ-induced diabetic rats and found to reduce blood glucose, serum cholesterol, and serum triglycerides significantly. There was also a significant decrease in TBARS, lipid peroxidation, and an increase in GSH in the study. In diabetic circumstances, the results revealed considerable antidiabetic efficacy as well as high antioxidant capacity. MP extract supplementation may aid in the correction of hyperglycemia and the prevention of diabetic complications.

TOP QUESTIONS

Questions: What is the common name of Murraya Paniculata?

Ans: Orange jasmine, Satin wood, Honey bush, China box

Questions: What is the Scientific name of the China Box Plant?

Ans: Murraya Paniculata

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