Pinwheel Flower: Taxonomy, Distribution, Botanical Features, Chemical Constituents, and Uses
Tabernaemontana divaricata is an ornamental plant. It’s a member of the Apocynaceae family. It is typically referred to as crepe jasmine. It is known as Tagar or Kath Mallika in West Bengal. It can be found on lawns, gardens, and areas where people have settled. Due to its creamy latex, glossy, deep green foliage, and white, fragrant blooms, this plant is particularly alluring. This plant has a large number of phytochemical substances, including alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, phenolic acids, and various plant enzymes, making it particularly popular in traditional medicine. The plant parts are used to treat a variety of human physiological diseases, including leprosy, epilepsy, abdominal tumours, eye infections, fractures, fever, headache, inflammations, edoema etc
An evergreen shrub of Indian origins called Tabernaemontana divaricata is currently grown in South East Asia and other hotter parts of continental Asia. In frost-free regions all around the world, Tabermontana divaricata, which is native to tropical parts of India, is frequently grown for decorative purposes. Because of its lovely, white blossoms, it is almost grown everywhere in the tropics and subtropics. When damaged, the stem of crape jasmine releases a milky latex, earning it the name Milk flower.
The plant typically reaches a height of 5 to 6 feet (1.5–1.8 m). The leaves are roughly 15 cm long and 5.0 cm wide. They are big, lustrous, and deep green. In addition to Vinca and Nerium, other genera in the family Apocynaceae also have flowers that have the distinctive “Pinwheel” shape. It is grown in both single- and double-flowered varieties, and both varieties have white flowers. Although the double-flowered variant has more blossoms, the single-flowered form’s flowers lack perfume. Although blossoms intermittently occur practically all year long, the crape jasmine blooms in the spring. White pinwheels with five petals, the waxy blossoms are borne in tiny clusters at the tips of the stems.
Scientific Name: Tabernaemontana divarcata
Common Names: Crepe Jasmine, Pinwheel Flower, Nandivarksha, Chandni, Tagar, Tagari Moonbeam
The plant is widely spread over Asia, Australia, China’s mangrove forests, Japan, and India. Upper Gangetic Plain, Garhwal, Khasia Hills, Assam, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Vishakhapatnam, and West Bengal are the typical locations where it can be found.
1. The evergreen, relatively quick-growing shrub Tabernaemontana divaricata is used medicinally.
2. It can be grown as a garden plant and is also common on lawns, on the sides of roads, and in regions where people live.
3. The plant is glabrous, grows to a height of 1.5 to 2.5 metres, has wrinkly, milky latex that leaks from wounds, and bears fragrant snow-white blooms.
4. The plants’ leaves are elliptic-oval in shape, simple, whole, opposite/sub-opposite, pinnately venated, acuminate and wavy at the margins, dark green in colour, and glossy and leathery in texture.
5. The plant’s stem is tuber-like and thick, woody, smooth-no hairs, dichotomously branched, dark brownish, hard, erect, branching, silvery grey bark, and milky latex. It may also be multi-trunked or clumping.
6. The plant’s tap root system serves as its root. The root is hard, branching, and silvery brownish; it has neither a taste nor an odour.
7. The flowers are tiny, trumpet-shaped, milky white, actinomorphic, sweetly scented, solitary or few-flowered cymes in axils or terminal, pin-wheel arrangement of petals, calyx lobes 5, imbricate, campanulate, corolla salver-shaped, tube dilated below the top, lobes 5, ovate; Stamens 5, included in the dilated portion of the tube,
8. The fruits are rare but follicles 2, green on the exterior, orange-red inside, narrowing into a slender, curving beak, ribbed and curled, dry or hard.
9. The plant produces a large number of irregular, dull brown seeds that are numerously pitted and encased in a crimson pulpy aril.
Flowering and Fruiting Time: The entire year, but especially the months of July through September.
Tabernaemontana divarcata’s chemical make-up includes indole alkaloids. Alkaloids are organic compounds that can be either natural or manufactured, are basic, include one or more nitrogen atoms, are often heterocyclic in form, and, when taken in tiny doses, have certain physiological effects on the human or animal body.
The following chemical components have been identified in the plant Tabernaemontana divarcata: Dregamine, Lahoricine, Pericyclivine, Taberhanine, Tubotaiwine, Vallcsaminc, Voafinidinc, Voalcninc, Voafininc, Vophylline, Indolenine, hydroxyvoaphylline.
Layers or stem cuttings can be used to grow tabemaemontana.
Soil and Climate
The Tabemaemontana doesn’t need much attention. It favours sandy loam soil with a pH range of acidic to neutral and good drainage. It thrives in sunny, tropical and subtropical settings where it receives moderate water all year long (plants in bright sunshine produce more blooms). To maintain the right size and shape, lightly prune as needed.
1. Tabernaemontana divaricata is a beneficial and exceptional medicinal shrub that is utilised as a traditional medicinal plant in Ayurveda, homoeopathic, and folklore treatment systems for diverse human disease healing purposes in different regions of the world.
2. Asthma, diarrhoea, epilepsy, abdominal tumours, eye infections, fever, fractures, headache, inflammation, leprosy, edoema, paralysis, piles, rabies, rheumatic pain, ulceration, and skin problems are only a few of the numerous ailments that can be treated with several elements of this medicinal plant.
3. The herb is also used as an anti-hypertensive, aphrodisiac, diuretic, anthelmintic, hair growth promoter, purgative, treatment against toxins, and tonic for the brain, liver, and spleen.
4. The herb is used for fever, pain, and diarrhoea in Thai, Ayurvedic, and Chinese traditional medicine systems.
5. While in Africa, latex from crushed leaves or fruits is used as a treatment for stomach aches, headaches, constipation, and flatulence.
6. Additionally, a blend of leaf powder and other species is dissolved in water and used to treat bewitched people or to rekindle hunger every day.
7. In Malaysia, the plant’s bark is decocted to treat syphilis, and the boiled juice’s steam is inhaled to treat nasal ulcers. Both the plant paste used to treat orchitis and the roots are prepared as a decoction and taken orally to treat fever.
8. The plant’s leaves are used to treat cancers in Bangladesh. The extract from the leaves is used to cure sores. Due to the widespread distribution of Tabernaemontana divaricata throughout temperate and tropical India, America, Thailand, and other parts of the world, various plant parts are utilised in various traditional ways to treat various diseases.
9. In both north and south India, Pooja is frequently performed with flowers. It makes a great evergreen and decorative bush for gardens and lawns. The name “Moonbeam” is justified by the plant’s profusion of brilliant white blossoms, which shine with incredible splendour in the moonlight.
Frequently Asked Questions About Pinwheel Flower
Question: Is the pinwheel plant poisonous?
Ans: When damaged, the stem of crape jasmine releases a milky latex, that is poisonous earning it the name Milk flower
Question: What flower looks like a pinwheel?
Ans: Vinca and Nerium, other genera in the family Apocynaceae also have flowers that have the distinctive “Pinwheel” shape. It is grown in both single- and double-flowered varieties, and both varieties have white flowers. Although the double-flowered variant has more blossoms, the single-flowered form’s flowers lack perfume. Although blossoms intermittently occur practically all year long, the crape jasmine blooms in the spring. White pinwheels with five petals, the waxy blossoms are borne in tiny clusters at the tips of the stems.
Question: What is the name Nandivardhanam in English?
Ans: Tabernaemontana divarcata, Crepe Jasmine
Question: Do pinwheel jasmine attract butterflies?
Ans: Yes pinwheel jasmine is important for butterfly gardens
Question: How do you take care of pinwheel plants?
Ans: The pinwheel plants don’t need much attention. It favours sandy loam soil with a pH range of acidic to neutral and good drainage. It thrives in sunny, tropical and subtropical settings where it receives moderate water all year long (plants in bright sunshine produce more blooms). To maintain the right size and shape, lightly prune as needed.
Question: How do you propagate pinwheel flowers?
Ans: Layers or stem cuttings can be used to grow pinwheel flowers
Question: Can you grow jasmine from a cutting?
Ans: Yes by stem cuttings
Question: How do you prune Tabernaemontana?
Ans: Layers or stem cuttings
Question: Are coreopsis poisonous?
Ans: No The coreopsis plant is non-poisonous
Question: Is Crepe Jasmine Evergreen?
Ans: The Crepe Jasmine is an evergreen shrub, a relatively quick-growing plant
Question: What insects does jasmine attract?
Ans: Butterflies, and Honey Bees
Question: Is jasmine toxic to dogs?
Ans: It is Non-poisonous to Cats, Dogs and Horses