Persian Silk Tree: Distribution, Classification, Characteristics, Phytochemical Constituents, and Importance
Mimosa or silk tree, also known as Albizia julibrissin, is a decorative tree. It is mostly grown in the southern states of the United States and has spread greatly into nature. A. julibrissin Durazz, which belongs to the Mimosaceae family and is also referred to as Mimosa or silk tree, was brought to North America as an ornamental.
COMMON NAMES: Persian Silk Tree, Mimosa, Silk tree, Silky acacia
In North America, Mimosa is a non-native plant. As of 2008, it was present as far north as New York and Massachusetts in the Northeast, as well as in southern Midwest regions, all of the South-Central and the Southeastern United States, except tropical Florida, as well as in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and California. Asian countries from Iran to Japan are home to the mimosa. The mimosa was allegedly brought to America as an ornamental in 1745, as is frequently claimed. It was initially made available for purchase in 1807, while Cothran claims that it was transported to North America before 1785. Georgians had become accustomed to mimosa by the 1950s. In South Carolina’s Oconee County, it set a new record in 1972. In the Chauga River Gorge in Oconee County, disturbed areas of mimosa were regarded as common by 1992. Between 1956 and 1978, it was first noted in the flora of Illinois. According to Connelly, the mimosa was first noted in the flora of Connecticut in 2008, however, it was initially identified as “newly documented” in the Washington, DC, region in 1995. Mimosas are found in the southern reaches of the Cascade Range and the north-central Sacramento Valley, according to a 1994 reference to plants of Butte County, California.
1. A deciduous, nitrogen-fixing tree or shrub, Mimosa has thin, virtually smooth leaves.
2. Mimosas have one or many short stems and a wide crown. It is between 3 and 15 meters (10 to 50 feet) tall.
3. The champion mimosa has an 80.4-foot (24.5 m) spread and is 64 feet (20 m) tall, according to a 2006 measurement.
4. Its circumference is 103.2 inches at a height of 3 feet (1 m) (262 cm).
5. Mimosas in subtropical forests at the foot of the Garhwal Himalayas had an average girth of 76.9 inches (195.2 cm).
6. Alternate mimosa leaves range in size from 4 to 20 inches (15-38 cm) in length and up to 6 inches (15 cm) in width. The leaves are bipinnately compound, with 3 to 12 pairs of pinnae per leaf and 8 to 30 pairs of leaflets per pinna.
7. The oblong leaflets are 2 to 5 mm wide and 5 to 15 mm long. They are asymmetrical, have complete borders, and may be puberulent, frequently along the margins and the underside of the midrib. Mimosa leaves tremble in response to light and touch.
8. The colourful flowerheads grow in groups at the terminals of branches. Each head contains 15 to 25 sessile flowers that range in length from 1 to 2 inches (2.5–6 cm).
9. Flattened legumes that are 3 to 8 inches long (8-20 cm) and 0.6 to 1.2 inches (1.5-3 cm) wide make up the mimosa’s fruits.
10. They grow in clusters and have 5 to 16 seeds each. Hard seed coverings and a 6 to 12 mm length to width ratio characterize seeds.
11. According to reports, mimosas only survive an average of 30 years in the United States. With minimal ages of 30 to 45 years or more, mimosa may live longer in Korea.
Studying the phytochemistry of various Albizia species revealed various kinds of secondary metabolites, including saponins, terpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Triterpenoid saponins (julibroside J29, julibroside J30, julibroside J31), novel macrocyclic alkaloids (budmunchiamines A, B, and C), and two flavonol glycosides (quercitrin and isoquercitrin) were some bioactive compounds isolated and identified from the genus Albizia. These compounds demonstrated various biological activities, including antitumor, and antiplatelet Anthraquinone glycosides, which cause the leaking of cytoplasmic components, were the anthraquinone elements of A. lebbeck bark extract that were active.
Using bio-assay-guided fractionation of a methanolic extract of A. subdimidiata, two active saponins, Albiziatrioside A and B, were discovered. These saponins significantly harmed the A2780 cell line. The leaves of A. inopinata were used to isolate a combination of two novel macrocyclic spermine alkaloids. preliminary research on A. inopinata suggested that the chemicals may have pharmacologically-induced central nervous system depression activity.
1. There are numerous endemic Albizia species only found in India. In traditional Chinese medicine, the blossoms are frequently used to cure anxiety, depression, and insomnia.
2. Albizia thomsonii, an Indian species, is regarded as fragile. Albizia species are important to society because they generate high-quality wood and are a valuable source of gum production.
3. In Ayurvedic medicine, species including Albizia julibrissin, Albizia lebbeck, Albizia procera, and Albizia amara are taken into consideration heavily.
4. Albizia lebbeck is an astringent that is also used by some cultures as a tonic, to cure abdominal tumours, treat boils, and cough, treat the eye, treat the flu, treat gingivitis, treat lung difficulties, treat pectoral problems, and treat boils.
5. The blossoms of the lebbeck, adorned as a crown, were traditionally used in Tamil culture to greet victorious troops.
6. In Madagascar, the bark is cooked with food, and the leaves are boiled to form a beverage. Some African nations utilize its sweet-smelling gum or resin in cosmetics.
7. In traditional medicine, the young shoots and root bark are frequently employed.
8. The Zulu people of South Africa utilize the plant’s poisonous bark as medicine and occasionally to construct love charms.
9. To treat skin conditions like scabies, itchy eyes, and bronchitis, they also brew a hot or cold infusion from the bark and roots.
11. Albizia amara seeds are thought to be astringent and are used to cure piles, diarrhoea, and gonorrhoea. Some Albizia species are thought to have potential as a source of fodder.
12. Due to their dense foliage and swift growth, they were also a popular choice for secondary plantations and silviculture. In the initial stages of mine spoil restoration in a dry tropical climate, species like A. lebbeck and A. procera demonstrated considerable potential in the process of soil regeneration.