Papaya Carica’s Traditional and Medical Uses
Papaya is a year-round fruit that is a nutritional powerhouse. It is a rich source of the B vitamins pantothenic acid, folate, and fibre, as well as the three potent antioxidant vitamins C, A, and E, magnesium, and potassium. Along with all of this, papain, a digestive enzyme, efficiently heals the underlying causes of trauma, allergies, and sports injuries. Collectively, papaya’s nutrients strengthen the cardiovascular system, guard against heart conditions, heart attacks, and strokes, and guard against colon cancer. The fruit is a fantastic source of beta carotene, which guards against the harm done by free radicals, which can result in some types of cancer. According to reports, it helps in preventing diabetic heart disease. Due to its high fibre content, papaya helps decrease high cholesterol levels.
All forms of digestive and gastrointestinal diseases can be properly treated and improved with papaya. It is a medication for constipation, dysentery, hyperacidity, and dyspepsia. Because papaya is a strong source of proteolytic enzymes, it aids in the digestion of proteins. Even papain, a digestive enzyme that may be found in papaya, is isolated, dried, and used as a digestive aid. Regular consumption of ripe fruit aids in relieving habitual constipation. Additionally, papaya is said to delay premature ageing. It may function because our bodies don’t get enough nutrients through inadequate digestion. The fruit is recommended as a treatment for digestive issues, while papaya skin is the greatest therapy for wounds. Even you can apply a poultice to wounds using the pulp that remains after extracting papaya juice. Papaya’s antioxidant components, including papain and chymopapain, have been reported to aid in the reduction of inflammation and the healing of burns. That is why consuming all these nutrients provides help for patients with conditions (including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis) that are made worse by inflammation. Due to its vitamin A and C concentration, papaya helps to support a healthy immune system by boosting your resistance to colds and coughs. By including papaya in your diet, you can ensure a steady supply of vital vitamins A and C for optimal health. Carica papaya constituents exhibit an alkaline combination, similar to that of borax or potassium carbonate, and they have demonstrated success in the treatment of eczema, cutaneous tubercles, warts, corns, sinuses, and other skin conditions characterized by hardness. They can also be injected into indolent glandular tumours to aid in their absorption. Papaya’s green fruits are used to lower blood pressure, treat dyspepsia, relieve constipation, treat amenorrhea, treat general sluggishness, get rid of worms, and stimulate the reproductive system.
The fruit of the solitary species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae is the papaya, often known as papaw or pawpaw. It is indigenous to the Americas’ tropics. A big, tree-like plant, the papaya has a single stem that can reach heights of 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) and is covered in spirally arranged leaves only at the top of the trunk. The leaves are enormous, 50–70 cm in diameter, and have seven lobes that are deeply palmately lobed. Unless lopped, the tree is often unbranched. The leaves axils sprout blooms, which develop into substantial fruit. When the fruit is tender to the touch and has an amber to orange tint on its skin, it is ripe. These papaya nutritional benefits aid in stopping the oxidation of cholesterol. In addition to being a strong source of vitamins A, B, and G and vitamin C, papaya is also high in iron and calcium (ascorbic acid). Terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, and steroids can be found in unripe C. papaya extracts. These papaya nutritional benefits aid in stopping the oxidation of cholesterol. In addition to being a strong source of vitamins A, B, and G and vitamin C, papaya is also high in iron and calcium (ascorbic acid). Terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, and steroids can be found in unripe C. papaya extracts.
a. Proteolytic Enzymes
Papain and chymopapain are two of the special protein-digesting proteolytic enzymes found in papaya.
Pepsin, a digestive enzyme found in human bodies, and this enzyme are comparable.
In the past, a chymopapain-based medication was widely utilized to treat slipping discs. Papain and chymopapain can both aid in reducing inflammation and accelerating burn healing.
Humans’ hearts beat more slowly thanks to the alkaloid called carpaine, which lowers blood pressure. Similar to the medicine digitalis, which is prescribed to heart patients, it works similarly. Worms and amoebas are said to be killed by the alkaloid.
Lycopene, a substance that fights cancer, is abundant in papaya. The biosynthesis of numerous significant carotenoids, including beta-carotene and xanthophylls, is a crucial step.
Fibrin is yet another helpful substance that is scarcely present in the plant kingdom. It enhances the blood’s ability to circulate through the circulatory system by lowering the risk of blood clots and raising the calibre of blood cells. Fibrin is essential for preventing stroke, as well.
4. Pharmacological Activity of Papaya
Whole Carica papayas have special medicinal uses.
Papaya leaf offers a variety of advantages. The young papaya leaves are steamed and eaten like spinach in various regions of Asia.
a. Dengue fever
According to research done on 70 dengue fever patients by Dr. Sanath Hettige, papaya leaf juice increases white blood cells and platelets, normalizes clotting, and heals the liver.
b. Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth
Recent studies on papaya leaf tea extract have shown that it inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells. It seems to increase the synthesis of vital signaling molecules known as Th1-type cytokines, which aid in immune system control.
c. Antiplasmodial and Malarial Activity
To cure malaria, papaya leaves are brewed into tea. Some preparations of the plant have been recognized to have antimalarial and antiplasmodial properties, however, the mechanism is unknown and not supported by science.
d. Promote Digestion
The chemical constituents of karpain, a substance that destroys germs that frequently obstruct the digestive process, are found in the leaves of papaya plants.
Provitamin A carotenoids, vitamin C, B vitamins, lycopene, dietary minerals, and dietary fibre are just a few of the components found in abundance in papaya fruit. The papaya fruit contains a phytoalexin called danielone. When tested against the harmful papaya fungus Colletotrichum gloesporioides, this substance displayed strong antifungal properties.
Ripe papaya fruit has laxative properties that guarantee regular bowel movements.
The “papain” enzyme can be found in the milky juice that is extracted from the green, mature fruit while it is still on the tree. This is used in the production of several indigestion treatments.
The papaya’s edible black seeds have a pungent, peppery flavour. They can occasionally be pulverised and used in place of black pepper.
Nephro-protective effect was seen in a dose-dependent manner in wistar rats. Urine and creatinine concentrations were assessed.
b. More Effective
The papaya seeds are nearly inedible due to their strong peppery and acrid flavour. But compared to the flesh, the seeds appear to have more significant medicinal properties.
Papaya seeds that have been dried resemble peppercorns quite a bit and can be used in the same way. A quick and easy approach to increasing your dietary enzyme intake and enhancing the health of your digestive system is to grind a few over a meal, particularly protein-rich meals.
Papaya peel is frequently utilized in cosmetics. Numerous home treatments also employ papaya peel.
a. Soothing slave and sunscreen
Vitamin A is necessary to repair and rebuild skin that has been damaged. Papaya peel application is used as a skin lightening agent. Peel can soothe and hydrate skin when combined with honey and applied.
b. Take on Dandruff
To combat dandruff, apply papaya vinegar and lemon juice to the scalp for 20 minutes before shampooing.
c. Relaxant for muscles
Along with essential oils like lavender, orange, and rosemary, papaya oil and vinegar can be nourishing, refreshing, and calming, as well as acting as a painkiller and muscle relaxant.
In several Asian nations, papaya root juice is used to treat urinary issues. Asthmatic people smoke papaya leaf that has been dried and cured like a cigar. To eliminate or expel intestinal worms, a person will drink an infusion of fresh papaya leaves. Additionally, fresh young papaya is utilized to treat colic, a specific gastrointestinal condition, or cramps. For the treatment of dyspepsia, a decoction made by boiling the outer portion of papaya tree roots
Papain and chymopapain are found in the milky sap of unripe papaya. For patients with confirmed herniated lumbar intervertebral discs who had not improved after receiving “conservative therapy,” chymopapain was approved for intradiscal injection. In addition to vitamins, Carpaine alkaloid traces have been discovered in latex. The fruit’s seeds also include carbohydrates, carpasemine, benzyl senevol, and a glucoside in addition to natural oils. Additionally, papain is used to cure commercial beer, degum natural silk, tenderise meat, and make chewing gum. It is utilized cosmetically in shampoos and a variety of face-lifting procedures. Capaine lowers blood pressure in people by slowing the heart rate.
Papaya fibre can bind toxin-causing tumours in the colon and keep them out of the healthy colon cells. Together, these nutrients offer colon cells a synergistic defense against DNA damage caused by free radicals.
b.Effects that are anti-inflammatory
Asthma, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis are all made less severe by the protein enzymes papain and chymopapain as well as the antioxidant vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene contained in papaya.
Humans are protected from inflammatory polyarthritis, a type of rheumatoid arthritis affecting two or more joints, by vitamin C-rich foods like papaya.
d. Encourage Lung Health
if you smoke or if you frequently come into contact with secondhand smoke. Consuming foods high in vitamin A, like papaya, can prolong your life and keep your lungs healthy.
Recent studies have shown that papaya has anti-sickling properties.
f. Prevent Prostate Cancer
Those who consumed lycopene-rich foods such as tomatoes, papaya, apricots, pink grapefruit, watermelon, and guava had an 82% lower risk of prostate cancer than men who consumed the fewest lycopene-rich foods.
G. Effect of Anticoagulants
When administered intravenously to dogs, papian extract triples coagulation and prothrombin levels. Additionally, it is asserted that the enzyme gets rid of necrotic tissues in open sores, burns, and ulcers. The brewing sector, the food industry, and the textile industry all benefit financially from papain.
6. Side Effects and Allergies
Papaya is widely used to condition hair, but only in tiny doses. When papayas are not quite ripe, they exude a latex fluid that might irritate some people and trigger an allergic reaction in others. Unripe papayas’ high latex content is thought to stimulate uterine contractions, which could result in a miscarriage. Papaya seed extracts have a contraceptive effect in big dosages on rats and monkeys but do not affect unborn animals in modest doses. The harmless condition of carotenemia, which causes the soles and palms to turn yellow, can be brought on by excessive papaya consumption. But one would have to take a very huge dose; About 6% of the beta carotene found in carrots is present in papaya (the most common cause of carotenemia)
The latex from papaya irritates the skin externally and causes acute gastritis within. Numerous fruit components can cause allergies in some persons, and the papain enzyme itself has drawbacks.
b. Discoloration of the Skin
A benign skin colouring known as carotenemia can result from consuming too many foods that are yellow, green, or orange in hue that contain beta carotene. The most obvious body parts that are impacted by carotenemia are the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet. Papaya consumption should be reduced to reduce skin discolouration.
c. Free Radical
Activity in Free Radical Scavenging Numerous phenolic groups in papaya have the potential to scavenge free radicals. Papaya leaf aqueous extract exhibits antioxidant activity
d. Respiratory Stress
According to Purdue University, papain is another potential allergen. People who consume large amounts of papaya and high levels of papain may experience symptoms resembling hay fever or asthma, such as wheezing, breathing issues, and nasal congestion.
e. Digestive system symptoms
Ironically, the same papain that soothes your stomach can irritate your stomach if you ingest too much of it. Papayas have a lot of fibre, which can potentially aggravate the digestive tract. The skin of the fruit’s latex can irritate the stomach as well.