COMPONENTS OF FOOD: Questions and Answers Chapter 2 for Class 6th (CBSE/NCERT)
Food: A group of edible substances that provide living things energy, heal damaged tissues, and regenerate new ones
Nutrition: Nutrition is the process of absorbing the nutrients needed for our bodies to grow and develop as well as to produce energy. Three main components, or nutrients, are found in our food. These are Lipids, Proteins, and Carbohydrates. Our bodies also need water, salt (minerals), vitamins, and fibre.
Diet: It is the quantity of food a person consumes at a time.
Malnutrition: A person becomes weak if they do not consume enough food or if their diet is deficient in certain nutrients. Malnutrition is the term used to describe when the body receives inadequate nutrition.
Different food components are categorised into three classes.
1. Foods that provide energy: Carbohydrates and fats
2. Proteins as a bodybuilding food
3. Vitamins and minerals are protective foods.
Your body receives energy from carbohydrates, which enables it to function throughout the day.
Sugar: Sugar is sometimes referred to as a simple carbohydrate. Some sources of sugar include fish, honey, and table sugar.
Starch: It is sometimes referred to as a complex carbohydrate. Starch serves as a kind of energy storage in plants. Some sources of starch include rice, wheat, corn, potatoes, and bread.
1. Numerous fruits and vegetables, as well as grains including rice, wheat, sorghum, beans, peas, and sago, as well as sugarcane and sugar beet, as well as many grains, are good sources of carbohydrates.
2. Key carbohydrates in our meals include cellulose, starch, sucrose, glucose, and fructose.
Animals or plants can provide fats, including groundnut, soybean, and mustard oils. Animals provide the fats used in products like butter and ghee. In our bodies, fats serve as fuel, but they offer more energy than carbohydrates.
Some benefits of small amounts of fat deposits in our bodies. It promotes organ development, shields them from harm, and stops heat loss from the body’s surface. For the body, too much fat deposition is harmful. This results in a disease known as Obesity.
Our bodies need proteins to grow and repair themselves. They support the growth of new tissues. They also explain the structure of muscles and the hard, fibrous texture of hair, nails, and skin. They aid in the healthy operation of our body because they are a component of our blood. The main sources of animal proteins include milk, fish, meat, cheese, and eggs. Pulses and beans are examples of legumes that can be used to obtain vegetable proteins.
Our bodies only need very small amounts of vitamins. Vitamins support the health of our gums, teeth, bones, and eyes. Vitamin-rich foods are referred to as Protective foods since they shield our bodies from illnesses and maintain our health.
Our bodies only require a minimal amount of them. Each one is necessary for healthy bodily development and maintenance. Along with the macro elements calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, they also contain the trace elements copper, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc.
Dietary Fibres or Roughage
The term “Roughage” also applies to Dietary fibres. Our food’s main source of roughage is plant-based items. The component of plant foods that your body is unable to digest is known as roughage and includes whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes, fruits, and vegetables.
However, it’s a crucial source of food for the good bacteria in your stomach. Additionally, it might help with weight management and lower a few heart disease risk factors. Although roughage is a necessary part of our diet and increases food’s size, it does not deliver any nutrients to our bodies. This aids our body in eliminating uneaten meals. The main sources of roughage are potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and legumes.
Deficiency diseases are conditions that develop when there is a sustained lack of nutrients. The body may develop illnesses or disorders if one or more nutrients are deficient. Deficiency diseases are conditions that develop when there is a sustained lack of nutrients.
When carbohydrate intake is low, the body will turn to protein and fat for energy. It is not advised to avoid this category of meals when avoiding gluten because carbohydrates are the body’s main source of energy. The body can utilise glucose from other sources or even produce it when needed to burn energy efficiently. When the liver’s glycogen (glucose stores) are depleted in the absence of carbohydrates, ketosis sets in. Regular consumption of carbohydrates-containing fruits and starchy vegetables will halt the onset of ketosis. Having said that, fibre is crucial to a balanced diet and the prevention of cancer. Without certain whole grains, a person would have to eat a lot of fruits, vegetables, and legumes to get the recommended daily amounts of fibre (35g for men and 30g for women).
Ketosis – Excessive levels of the ketone body, or ketosis, are found in the blood and tissues. Animals with high energy need frequently break down tissue protein for energy.
A slow rate of growth, A decline in milk and egg production, infertility
Even though a person is eating enough food, occasionally the food may not include all of the nutrients that person needs. The person may experience its deficiency if this persists for a long time.
Vitamin A——— Night blindness
Vitamin C —— Scurvy, Swelling of Gums
Vitamin D —— Rickets & Osteomalacia
Vitamin E —— Less Fertility
Vitamin K —— Non-Clotting of Blood.
Vitamin B2——– Ariboflavinosis
Vitamin B3 ——–Pellagra
Vitamin B5 ——–Paresthesia
Vitamin B6 ——–Anemia
Vitamin B7 —— Dermatitis, enteritis
Vitamin B9 & Vitamin B12 —– Megaloblastic anemia
Define the following terms
Nutrients: Nutrients are the parts of food that provide energy and support growth. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals are the primary nutrients in meals. Dietary fibres and water are also categorised as nutrient addition to these.
Malnutrition: Malnutrition is the ill condition of the body brought on by a deficiency in one or more nutrients.
Obesity: The excessive accumulation of fat in a person’s body causes it to be too heavy and bulky.
Scurvy: Scurvy is a condition brought on by a vitamin C deficiency. Gum swelling and bleeding, loosening of the teeth, joint pain, and general weakness are all signs of scurvy.
Anaemia: Anaemia is caused by a lack of iron in the diet. An anaemic person will exhibit the following symptoms: 1. Paleness; 2. Ease of fatigue; 3. Appetite loss; and 4. Weight loss.
Rickets: Rickets is caused by a vitamin D deficiency. A person deficient in vitamin D will exhibit the following symptoms: i. Softening and weakening of children’s bones; ii. Twisted or bow-legged legs; and iii. Delayed growth.
Question: Give the names of two sources of complex carbohydrates. Identify the molecules that make up their constituent parts.
Ans. Complex carbohydrates include starch and cellulose. You can get starch from grains like wheat, rice, corn, and potatoes. Wood, grass, cotton, and other materials contain cellulose. The constituents molecules of carbohydrates are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Question: Name the disease caused by the deficiency of iron. What signs does it exhibit?
Ans: Anaemia is a condition brought on by a lack of iron. Fatigue, appetite loss, and a pale appearance are some of its primary symptoms.
Question: What does “balanced diet” mean? What should a typical, balanced diet consist of?
Ans. A balanced diet includes all of the necessary nutrients in the appropriate amounts. A basic balanced diet should include:
1. 60% of carbohydrates
2. 15% of fats
3. 25% of proteins Vitamins
4. Minerals According to the previously listed components Roughage and enough water
Question: Why do lipids in our bodies act as energy stores?
Ans. Because our bodies store the extra energy as fat, fats are referred to as the “energy store” in our bodies. The body uses this fat that has been stored to produce energy as needed.
Question: Which two disorders in children are brought on by protein and energy malnutrition? What signs do they exhibit?
Ans. The diseases Kwashiorkar and Marasmus are two that are brought on by protein-energy deficiency.
Kwashiorkar: It results from a diet that is lacking in both proteins and carbohydrates. Kwashiorkar symptoms include:
* Irritable with pitiful facial appearances
* Skin that cracks and becomes scaly
* Swollen abdomen and flimsy legs
* Reddish hair
* Lower body weight and slowed growth
Marasmus: This condition is brought on by a lack of both proteins and carbs. The infant loses weight quickly, develops wasted muscles, and becomes so thin that skin folds are visible all over the body.
Question: Describe how proteins function in our bodies.
Ans: The following are some of the functions of protein in our bodies: digestion, body growth, tissue repair, and catalysing specific biochemical reactions.
Question: Why is glucose referred to as an instant energy source?
Ans. Glucose enters the bloodstream directly and begins to immediately produce energy through breathing. As a result, it serves as a quick source of energy.
Question: Why is it not a good idea to consume more fat than carbohydrates?
Answer: Extra fat from the diet is accumulated in our bodies. Obesity is the result of too much body fat being stored.
Question: Why is roughage a necessary component of food?
Roughage helps the body retain water, so that’s answer number one. ii. It gives the food more volume and makes you feel fuller after a meal. iii. It aids in regular bowel movement and prevents constipation.
Question: Describe the origins, symptoms, and treatments for night blindness.
Ans. A patient with night blindness is unable to see in low light or may perhaps lose their vision. It is brought on by a vitamin A deficiency. White deposits on the conjunctiva and corneal dryness are its primary symptoms. Giving a diet high in vitamin A can heal it.
Question: Which of the following needs a diet high in fat and carbohydrates and why?
A worker, A clerk, A player, etc.
Ans. A worker requires a diet higher in carbohydrates and fats than an office clerk because of the greater amount of physical work they perform. A player only needs foods high in carbohydrates; he does not need foods high in fats since he needs more energy, which can only be obtained from carbohydrates.
Question: Which of the following provides more nutrients?
a. Wheat flour or maida chapatis c. Noodles or dalia c. Fruit juices or carbonated beverages cite arguments.
Ans. a. Wheat flour chapattis, which are easier to digest than maida since they contain roughage.
b. Dalia, which has antioxidants, protein, fibre, vitamin B, and other vitamins. Such nutrients are not abundant in noodles.
c. Fruit juices, are rich in vitamins and minerals like calcium, phosphorus, zinc, potassium, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, E, and K. These essential vitamins and minerals are not present in aerated soft drinks, which only contain a small amount of carbohydrates.