Bio-fertilizers are microorganism-based molecules that promote soil form and produce healthy crops. It tends to refer to using microbes instead of chemical agents to keep improving soil health. so we can say that it is less toxic and does not pollute the environment, because they are fully ecologically friendly. They are so vital in organic farming bio-fertilizers have a lot of potential for raising crop yields in environmentally acceptable methods. Bio-fertilizers are fertilizers that are derived from organic sources by utilizing Bio-logical wastes. these fertilizers are utilized to improve soil health. They are quite valuable in terms of nourishing the soil with micro-organisms that produce organic elements. Bio-fertilizers are nutrient inputs for plant development that are produced naturally.
Types of bio-fertilizers
1. Free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria
These Nitrogen-fixing bacteria i.e Azotobacter, Bacillus, Polymyxa, Clostridium, and other free-living bacteria can boost cotton, maize, jowar, and rice yields
2. Free-living nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria such as Anabaena, Nostoc, Aulosira, Tolypothrix, and others can fix nitrogen. It results in growth improvement, soil fertility and increases agricultural productivity
3. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Rhizobium found in the root nodules of leguminous plants fixes nitrogen for the plants while also resulting in increased crop yield R.leguminosarum, R.lupini, R.trifolii, R.meliloti, and R.phaseoli are some of the rhizobium species
4. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria
Some bacteria such as Azolla are of great importance to agriculture. In China, rice fields are regularly provided with Azolla for improving crop fertility
Plants and Fungi can create mutualistic partnerships termed mycorrhizae in which the fungus takes phosphorus from the soil and transfers it on to the plant, other beneficial traits of plants that grow with these interactions include
1. Drought and alkalinity resistance
2. Pathogen-borne pathogen resistance
3.An increase in the betterment and quality of the crop
Components of Biofertilizers
It is one of the environmentally beneficial products because it is made out of decomposed waste from the sugar mills. It is generated by bacteria, fungi, and plants that are beneficial to humans.
It preserves roots from soil pathogens and aids in nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plants, accounting for approximately 78 percent of the total atmosphere.
It’s an organic fertilizer that’s good for the environment and contains vitamins, hormones, organic carbon, sulphur, and antibiotics to enhance yield quantity and quality. Vermicompost is one of the quickest ways to boost soil fertility.
Importance of Biofertilizers
1. It is low-cost cost, easy technique, and easily available to marginal farmers.
2. It is free from pollution hazards and increases soil fertility
3. On application of Algal biofertilizers Rice yield may increase up to 55%
4. Biofertilizers increase Physiochemical properties of soil such as soil texture, cationic exchange capacity, and PH of the soil
5. Cyanobacteria secrete growth-promoting substances like NAA, IAA, Amino acids, Vitamins, etc.
6. Biofertilizers boost plant yields and soil texture, and pathogens are unable to thrive in their presence.
7. Even in semi-arid environments, biofertilizers have been found to be advantageous since they eliminate several harmful chemicals from the soil that could cause plant illnesses.
Frequently Asked Questions (Bio-fertilizers)
Question 1. What are manure and its types
ANS: Manures are organic substances obtained from the decomposition of vegetable and animal wastes by the action of micro-organisms. Manures contain all the minerals required by crops however they supply the number of minerals required by modern-day crop plants. It is of various types
A.Farm yard manure: It is got by the partial decay of dung of farm animals, farm refuse, dead leaves, and twings good. Quality farmyard manure consists of a mixture of cattle dung and crop residues a well-composed farmyard manure bears about 0.5% p2o5 and 0.5% k2o
B.Green manure: Green manure is a farming practice where leguminous plants derived enough benefits from association with adequate species of rhizobium. they increase the nitrogenous content of the soil reduce alkalinity and prevent soil erosion
C.Composed manure: It consists of rotten or decomposed vegetables and animal refuge dumping all kinds of plant debris including vegetable market, rubbish, and other organic refuse in heaps with a thin sprinkling of chemical fertilizers results in an enriched composted manure.
Question 2. what are the most important bio-fertilizers?
ANS: Organisms that increase the nutrient quality of soil are known as bio-fertilizers. Bacteria, fungi, and Cyanobacteria are the most common sources of bio-fertilizers. Symbiosis in which the partners benefit from each other is the most striking relationship they have with plants.
Question 3. What are the potential advantages of using bio-fertilizers?
ANS: 1. Increase agricultural yield by 20-30%
2. Increase the amount of chemical nitrogen and phosphorus by 25%
3. Promote the development of plants
4. Biologically activate the soil
5. Restore the soils natural richness
6. Provide drought resistance and protection from several soil-borne illnesses
Question 4. As a biofertilizer which mycorrhiza is used?
ANS: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) is a group of root-bound biotrophs that trade reciprocal advantages with roughly 80% of plants because they offer the host water nourishment and pathogen immunity in return for photosynthetic products they are termed natural bio-fertilizers
Question 5. Trichoderma is a bio-fertilizer right?
ANS: Trichoderma increases the qualities of the soil. Trichoderma can help improve soil qualities as a bio-fertilizer. the action of soil urease reduced over time
Manure verses Biofertilizer
|01.||It is organic debris that has partially decomposed and is combined with the soil.||It’s a type of microbe that helps crop plants get more nutrients.|
|02||Manure is necessary for the soil’s appropriate shape, aeration, and hydration.||biofertilizers aren’t required to keep the soil in good shape.|
|03||Manures are unable to satisfy all of the agricultural plant’s nutrient requirements.||A biofertilizer can meet all the requirements of a nutrient to crop plants|