It is a state of being in good enough physical, mental, and social health to carry out daily activities.
Determinants of Better Health:
Public cleanliness: We always emphasise the need of having a healthy environment around us since unhealthy environments might result in dangerous diseases. As a result, we may assert that maintaining public cleanliness plays a significant role in ensuring the general welfare of the populace.
Food: Proper nutrition is another crucial aspect of good health. Currently, we can only eat if we can afford to buy it, which requires us to work. So it stands to reason that improved work and societal economic conditions are essential for better health.
Society: If we maintain a stress-free lifestyle, we can maintain good health. Therefore, we might conclude that greater health is dependent upon a positive social environment.
Question: What is a Disease?
Ans: Diseases are any abnormalities or disturbances that occur within our bodies. Diseases can occasionally result from internal bodily dysfunction.
Question: How can we stay disease free?
Ans: We can avoid contracting diseases if we maintain excellent health, which includes:
• Eating right or following a balanced diet • Keeping the environment clean • Observing personal hygiene
Question: What is a disease symptom?
Ans: A Disease typically comes with some Symptoms and Signs. A change in one or more bodily systems will result in “Symptoms”(Cough, loose motions, pus formation, headache, fever, breathlessness, vomiting, fits, unconsciousness, inflammation, swelling and general effects – a Doctor looks for the basis of symptoms).
Question: What are the types of diseases?
Ans: Acute disease and chronic disease are the two main categories of disease. (DEPENDING ON DISEASE DURATION)
1. Acute Disease: Acute Disease is a term used to describe a short-lived illness. For instance, a cold.
2. Chronic Disease: A chronic disease lasts for a very long time. Consider tuberculosis.
Question: What impact do chronic diseases have on our health?
Ans: Chronic diseases are usually slow-moving, and they are likely to have an impact on our overall health as well.
1. They might slow down children’s development or make adults feel more stressed.
2. They may constantly make us feel worn out.
3. Additionally, they may cause a rise or fall in weight. They may also interfere with our daily activities and capacity for learning new things. Thus, we can conclude that they have longer-lasting consequences on health than short-term illnesses.
Question: What causes Diseases?
Ans: Two things can lead to disease:
1. Hormonal issues 2. Genetic abnormality 3. Allergic reaction 4. Body organ malfunction
External elements like:
1. Unhealthy diet 2. microorganisms that cause disease (bacteria, viruses, fungi) 3. Environmental pollution; 4. Poor lifestyle;
Immediate and Contributory Cause
The following are the immediate and contributory causes:
Immediate cause: The germs that enter our bodies and create sickness are referred to as the disease’s immediate cause. Viruses, bacteria, protozoa, etc. are a few examples.
Contributory cause: Contributory causes are the secondary elements that allowed these creatures to infiltrate our bodies.
Pathogens: Pathogens are outside agents that wreak disease on other living things. The pathogen contains dangerous bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa, among other germs or microorganisms.
Vector: The term “vector” refers to a creature that transfers a pathogen from one host to another. Some of the common vectors that spread infectious diseases include rats, mice, and mosquitoes.
Bacteria: Bacteria are microscopic creatures that are present in practically every type of habitat. Pathogens are not all the time harmed by bacteria. Some bacteria can even be helpful to humans. Beneficial uses of bacteria include nitrogen fixation, antibiotic extraction, and digesting.
Virus: A virus is an inherently pathogenic microorganism. They are not required to duplicate the equipment. As a result, they penetrate the host cell, proliferate, and ultimately kill the host cell. Colds, influenza, dengue fever, AIDS, and other prevalent illnesses spread by viruses are only a few examples.
Fungi: A group of eukaryotic creatures with a saprophytic diet makes up the fungi. They could be multicellular or unicellular. Examples of fungal diseases include several common skin infections like ringworm and nail infections.
Parasites: A parasite is an organism that lives inside its host and frequently causes harm to it. It needs the host to live, develop, and reproduce; otherwise, it cannot survive.
Questions: Under which of the following conditions are you most likely to fall sick?
(a) when you are taking examinations.
(b) when you have travelled by bus and train for two days.
(c) when your friend is suffering from measles. Why?
Ans: When a friend has measles, my chances of getting sick increase. This might occur when I visit my friend and I might end up having measles. One infectious and airborne disease is measles. the likelihood that when my friend coughs or sneezes, the airborne microorganisms in the sputum may get mixed in and spread to me through the air I breathe. Thus, the likelihood of contracting an infection rises.
Question: How many times did you fall ill in the last year? What were the illnesses?
(a) Think of one change you could make in your habits to avoid any of/most of the above illnesses.
(b) Think of one change you would wish for in your surroundings to avoid any of/most of the above illnesses.
Ans: The following illnesses troubled me three times in the past year.
Dysentery, viral fever, and malaria are just a few.
One of the ways that my behaviours have changed is that I now always strive to maintain my hygiene and only consume fruits or other food that is nice, covered, and clean.
Preventing the accumulation of trash and stagnant unclean water is one change I’d like to see in my neighbourhood to keep it clean, orderly, and hygienic.
Question: A doctor/nurse/health worker is exposed to more sick people than others in the community. Find out how she/he avoids getting sick herself/himself.
Ans: To prevent getting sick themselves, doctors and nurses take the following precautions:
(i) Gloves and masks are worn by them.
ii) They receive vaccinations.
iii) They eat foods high in protein to boost their immunity.
iv) They use preventative medications.
v) They make sure that blood, sputum, and other specimens are disposed of properly.
Question: A baby is not able to tell her/his caretakers that she/he is sick. What would help us to find out
(a) that the baby is sick? (b) what is the sickness?
Ans: (a) High body temperature, watering eyes, repeated sobbing, redness of the eyes, and high body temperature are some signs of illness in infants (b) Vomiting and watery stools
(b) The best way to identify a child’s illness is to take it to the doctor, who will make a diagnosis based on our descriptions of the child’s symptoms and his observations. The doctor will then provide treatments and safety measures to assist the child recover from illness. The symptoms listed above could point to an extreme fever
Question: State any two conditions essential for good health.
Ans: (i) A person should be physically active and in excellent health are two requirements for good health.
(ii) A person should live in favourable social and economic circumstances.
(iii) A clean atmosphere around the individual.
Question: State any two conditions essential for being free of disease.
Ans: The following are two requirements for being disease-free:
(i) The individual must have a suitable and balanced diet. (ii) It is important to preserve personal and public hygiene.
Question: What are the different means by which infectious diseases are spread?
Ans: The following methods are used to propagate infectious diseases:
(i)Through the air: When infected individual coughs or sneezes in our vicinity, the bacteria spread into the air and subsequently enter a healthy person’s body. Examples include the common cold, pneumonia brought on by T.B., etc.
(ii) Through water: When a healthy person drinks contaminated or polluted water, the microorganisms that are released into the environment from the excreta of a person with a gut (alimentary canal) disease enter the body of the healthy person. Cholera is an example. (iii) Through sexual contact: Sexual interaction with a person who has the disease can spread microbial illnesses like AIDS and syphilis.
(iv) With the use of vectors: Some organisms that cause disease disperse it through the use of a vector. As an illustration, consider the female Anopheles mosquito, a vector for malaria.
Question: What precautions can you take in your school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases?
Ans: The School takes the following precautions to lower the prevalence of infectious diseases:
(i) By providing clean, fresh drinking water.
(ii) By avoiding water buildup anyplace in the school.
(iii) By maintaining a spotless toilet.
(iv) By abstaining from eating foods and other edibles that are left out in the open.
(v) By covering the mouth with a handkerchief while sneezing or coughing.
(vi) By employing immunisation and vaccines.
(vii) Through the application of pesticides at regular intervals.
Question: What is immunization?
Ans: It is a process that develops our body’s resistance to disease-causing germs. In this procedure, a healthy person receives an injection of a vaccine to help them build immunity to a particular disease. Our immune system, therefore, engages in combat with a dead or attenuated microorganism in the form of vaccination to strengthen immunity against the same disease. When the bacterium returns, the immune system’s cells are aware of it and rapidly dispatch it.