Royal Poinciana: Gastroprotective Activity, Wound Healing Activity, Antidiarrhoeal Activity, Nutritional and Haemagglutination Properties

Royal Poinciana: Gastroprotective Activity, Wound Healing Activity, Antidiarrhoeal Activity, Nutritional and Haemagglutination Properties

Introduction

The majority of the active ingredients are found in the flowers, leaves, and bark. The blooms have insecticidal, antifertility, wound-healing, antifeedant, anthelmintic, and parasite-inhibiting effects on humans in addition to their ability to heal wounds. D. regia leaves exhibit cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, ulcer-healing, and antifungal properties. With the antiulcer and cytotoxic effects of the leaves’ kameferol and saponin components, respectively; quercetin lengthens the small intestine’s transit time in the digestive tract. While aqueous flower extracts have been utilized in Taiwan as phytotoxicants to manage weeds like Isachne nipponensis and Centella asiatica, aqueous bark extracts have emetic effects in cats and monkeys. When tested on Anopheles gambiae larvae in their second instar, the ethanolic extract of the seeds results in a 42.78 percent fatality rate. The seeds have been found to contain a novel Kunitz-like -amylase inhibitor, which may be used to manage insect pests.

Gastroprotective Activity

Shiramane et al. used the medication lansoprazole (8 mg•kg1, b.w., p.o.) as a reference to assess the gastroprotective effects of a 70 percent ethanolic extract of D. regia flowers against the effects of aspirin (200 mg•kg1, b.w., p.o.), alcohol (1 mL 200•g1, b.w., For the evaluation of its protective effects, several measures, including the ulcer index, % protection, stomach volume, pH of gastric juice, free acid, and total acid content, were assessed. The floral extract demonstrated a dose-dependent protective effect that was significantly (P 0.05) protective, either by protein precipitation, vasoconstriction, higher capillary resistance, or better circulation. The findings suggested that tannins and flavonoids, two antioxidant principles, may be responsible for ulcer prevention.

Wound Healing Activity

Using incision, excision, and dead space wound models, Husain et al. assessed the wound healing abilities of ethanol (70 percent) and aqueous extracts of D. regia flowers. As evidenced by a higher percentage of wound contraction, tensile strength, and hydroxyproline content, while decreasing epithelialization time, the aqueous extracts significantly (P 0.01) accelerated the healing process in comparison to the ethanolic extract and standard povidine iodine ointment (5 percent). The findings revealed that flavonoids may be responsible for the extract’s ability to promote wound healing.

Antidiarrhoeal Activity

In rat models of castor oil-induced diarrhoea (1 mL, p.o. ), prostaglandin-E2-induced g•kg1(100) enter pooling, and charcoal-induced gastrointestinal motility (1 mL, 3 percent aqueous solution), Shiramane et al. evaluated the in vivo antidiarroheal effect of 70% ethanolic extracts of D. regia flowers (100, 250, In all the treated animals, the extracts demonstrated dose-dependent protective effects that were statistically significant (P 0.05). The findings suggested that the flavonoids and tannins found in flowers may have an antidiarrheal impact by reducing the secretion of intestinal motility, or by preventing protein precipitation or the secretion of electrolytes.

Antimalarial Activity

By using the parasitemia of Plasmodium berghei infection in mice (Mus musculus) and Peter’s standard method, Fatmawaty et al. evaluated the antimalarial activities of the extracts of the fruits, peels, leaves, barks, seeds, and flowers of D. regia (72.8 mg•kg1, b.w., p.o.). They found that bark extract significantly inhibited parasite infection (122 percent, The outcomes suggested that its antimalarial action might be caused by the presence of alkaloids.

Antimicrobial Activity

Numerous researchers have examined the antibacterial properties of extracts from the leaves, flowers, seeds, stems, bark, and roots of D. regia on a wide range of microbial strains to pinpoint the active ingredient and determine the effectiveness. Using an in vitro disc diffusion method, the antimicrobial effects of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and the CCl4 fraction of the methanolic extract of stem bark (15 mg•mm2) of D. regia were evaluated against a variety of microbial strains, including Bacillus cereus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Escherichia coli. Zones of inhibition showed that dichloromethane fraction strongly inhibited S. paratyphi (12 mm) while only weakly inhibiting S. Typhi (16 mm), S. aureus (14 mm), and S. dysenteriae (14 mm); CCl4 and petroleum ether fraction inhibited P. aeruginosa (14 mm) and S. paratyphi (13 mm); however, they did not have activity on fungal strains

Diuretic Activity

Velan et al. used the Lipschitz test to assess the diuretic efficacy of methanolic extracts of D. regia flowers (100 and 200 mg•kg1, p.o.) Furosemide (20 mg•kg1, p.o.) served as the positive control, and normal saline (25 mL•kg1, p.o.) served as the negative control. In comparison to the control group (1.73 0.09), the results showed an increase in urine volume (mL•kg1 for 5 h) at dosages of 100 and 200 mg•kg1 b.w. (2.89 0.18 and 3.61 0.37) (P 0.05).

FLOWER

Anti-diarrhoeal Activity

The effectiveness against diarrhoea is In rat models of castor oil-induced diarrhoea (1 mL, p.o. ), prostaglandin-E2-induced enter pooling (100 g, p.o.) diarrhoea, and charcoal-induced gastrointestinal motility (1 mL, 3 percent aqueous solution), Shiramane et al. evaluated the in vivo antidiarrheal effect of flower extracts (70% ethanolic In all of the treated animals, the extracts demonstrated dose-dependent protective effects that were statistically significant (P 0.05). The findings suggested that flavonoids and tannins found in flowers may have an antidiarrheal impact by lowering intestinal motility output, reducing protein precipitation, or preventing the release of electrolytes (Modi et al., 2016).

Anthelminitic Activity

Delonix regia Rafin flower, a member of the Caesalpiniaceae family, was found to have anthelminitic action against Pheritima posthuma (Indian Earthworm). Three different concentrations of the flower’s aqueous and methanolic extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/ml) were used. Reports were made on the timing of worm death and paralysis. As a standard medicine, piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was administered, while distilled water served as the control. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts exhibit significant anthelminitic activity, while methanolic extract exhibits the greatest activity (Singh and Kumar, 2014).

Diuretic Activity

 Velan et al. used the Lipschitz test to assess the diuretic efficacy of D. regia flower methanolic extracts (100 and 200 mg•kg1, p.o.) using furosemide (20 mg•kg1, p.o.) as a positive control and normal saline (25 mL•kg1, p.o.) as a negative control. As compared to the control group (1.73 0.09), the results showed an increase in urine volume (mL•kg1 for 5 h) at dosages of 100 and 200 mg•kg1 b.w. (2.89 0.18 and 3.61 0.37) (P 0.05). (Modi et al., 2016).

Larvicidal Activity

When tested on Culax quinquefasciatus third and fourth instar larvae, the flower extracts were effective at greater concentrations and demonstrated a larvicidal activity. D. regia flower extracts reveal a much lower percentage of eggs hatching. Larvae and pupae are extremely harmful to it as well. Larvae in their third instar are more vulnerable to extraction than those in their final instar. At a dose of 200 ppm, the adult emergence from the treated pupae was entirely prevented (Ahmed et al., 2009).

Antihemolytic Activity

The antihemolytic activity of the methanolic extract of flower petals (25, 50, 75, and 100 g•mL1) against cumene hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis was assessed, and 90% antihemolytic activity was recorded at the concentration of 100 g•mL1 (Modi et al., 2016).

Wound healing Activity

To research, the impact on wound healing, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Delonix regia flowers were synthesized. Rats with albinism were the animals used. Incision and excision wound models were used. The rate of wound contraction, length of epithelization, tensile strength (skin breaking strength), and assessment of the hydroxyproline content of skin were used to measure wound healing. The healing process was greatly accelerated by the ethanolic and aqueous extracts (Singh and Kumar, 2014).

Gastroprotective Activity

Delonix regia Rafin flower ethanolic extract was obtained and tested for gastroprotective efficacy in an experimental model of caused ulcers. In the pylorus ligation-produced gastric ulceration model, the different parameters including ulcer index, pH of gastric juice, percentage protection in all models, and stomach volume, free acidity, and total acidity were tracked. The ethanolic floral extract of Delonix regia Rafin had dose-dependent gastroprotective properties (Singh and Kumar, 2014).

Anti-arthritic Activity

Using Freund’s incomplete adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats and diclofenac sodium (5 mg•kg1, b.w., p.o.) as the control, Chitra et al. assessed the anti-arthritic efficacy of alcoholic extracts of D. regia flowers (200 and 400 mg•kg1, b.w., p.o.). Rat hand paw oedema reduction and a rise in the level of a natural antioxidant enzyme were used as indicators of the drug’s antiarthritic effectiveness. As compared to standard-treated rats, the ethanolic extract treatment (400 mg•kg1) significantly (P 0.001) decreased the paw edoema volume and increased the level of antioxidant enzymes, specifically catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and total protein. However, the ethanolic extract treatment (200 mg•kg1) had no significant effects. The findings suggested that the antioxidant properties of the flowers may be responsible for the extract’s anti-arthritic efficacy (Modi et al., 2016).

LEAVES

Antiemetic Activity

Salman et al. used a chick emesis model and chlorpromazine (150 mg•kg•1, b.w., p.o.) as the control to assess the antiemetic effect of the methanolic extract of leaves (150 mg•kg•1, b.w, p.o.). Copper sulphate (50 mg•kg1, b.w., p.o.) was used to induce emesis. The average reductions in retching and the % suppression of emesis were used as indicators of the drug’s antiemetic efficacy. 96.74 percent inhibition is produced by the leaf extract (P 0.01), which is much more than chlorpromazine’s 33.97 percent inhibition (Modi et al., 2016).

Antimicrobial Activity

Scopoletin was separated by silica gel chromatography from the dichloromethane extract of Delonix regia Rafin leaf. Scopoletin exhibits antifungal efficacy against Candida albicans as well as antibacterial activity against Bubtilis subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The plant extract did not affect the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Apergillus niger. Using the disc diffusion method, the antimicrobial activity of the various extracts (15 g mm-2) was evaluated. The zones of inhibition shown by the fractions of petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and dichloromethane were, respectively, 9–14 mm, 11–13 mm, and 9–20 mm. The typical medication employed was kanamycin, which has a 20–25 mm zone of inhibition. Carbon tetrachloride-soluble compounds showed the maximum toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, with an LC50 of 0.83 mg mL-1, whereas petroleum ether and dichloromethane-soluble components of the methanolic extract indicated LC50s of 14.94 and 3.29 mg mL-1, respectively. Vincristine sulphate, the standard medication, had an LC50 of 0.812 mg mL-1 (Singh and Kumar,2014).

Nutritional and Haemagglutination Properties

Using a serial dilution approach, the haemagglutinating activity of plant seed extract was assessed against a variety of animal and human erythrocytes. Rats fed meals containing seeds performed nutritionally without the need for pricey pre-treatment or for the addition of particular amino acids to the diet. These D.regia seeds have a significant potential to become a source of dietary protein for both humans and animals because they only contained trace amounts of virtually non-toxic lectin (Ahmed et al., 2009).

Hypoglycemic Activity

Rahman et al. examined the hypoglycemic impact of leaf methanolic extract (50, 100, 200, and 400 mg•mL-1 b.w., p.o.) in mice with glucose-induced hyperglycemia. The hypoglycemic effect was assessed from the serum blood glucose level. When compared to normal glibenclamide (10 mg•mL-1 b.w., p.o.) treated mice, the extract had a substantial (400 mg•mL-1, P 0.000 1) dose-dependent impact (Modi et al., 2016).

WHOLE PLANT

Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities

At a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, analgesic efficacy was seen. The 300 mg/kg, p.o. dosage rate for the bark and flower extract Rats were used in the Randall-Selitto method to examine the analgesic activity of aspirin (300 mg/kg, p.o.), a reference medication that had been shown to have a strong anti-inflammatory effect (Ahmed et al., 2009).

Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Properties

Tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene were used as standard antioxidants in the ferric thiocyanate (FTC) assay and comparison with the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method to test the antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities of methanolic crude extracts of D. regia. The effectiveness of free radical scavenging was assessed using diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Significant antioxidant activity was demonstrated by the extract. By employing the FTC method and the conventional antioxidants -tocophrol and butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT), the alcoholic extract of this plant exhibits potential antioxidant activity (Ahmed et al., 2009).

Hepatoprotective Activity

The objective of the study was to assess the protective effects of a methanol extract of aerial portions of Delonix regia in rats with liver damage brought on by CCl 4. The aerial portions of D. regia have a methanolic extract that has hepatoprotective properties against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats (Singh and Kumar, 2014).

Antimalarial Activity

By using the parasitemia of Plasmodium berghei infection in mice (Mus musculus) and Peter’s standard method with chloroquine (8 mg•kg•1, b.w., p.o.) as a positive control, Fatmawaty & Astuti (2013) evaluated the antimalarial activities of the extracts of the fruits peels, leaves, barks, seeds, and flowers of D. regia (72.8 mg•kg1, The findings suggested that its antimalarial activity might be caused by the presence of alkaloids (Modi et al., 2016).

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