Rose (Rosa Indica): Introduction, Classification, Characteristics, Propagation, Cultivation, Rose products, and Medicinal Uses
The ornamental flower industry places a high value on the Rose. About 150 different species of roses can be found alone in the Northern Hemisphere. Over time, the rose gained popularity as a decorative flower after initially being employed for medicinal and aromatic purposes. In the floriculture sector, roses are the most significant crop and are popular with both pollinators and people who enjoy them. There are a few species that are native to Europe, North America, and North Western Africa, but the majority of species are native to Asia.
The king of flowers, the Rose (Rosa indica), also known as Gulab-Jo-Gul in Sindhi, is a member of the Rosaceae family. It is a woody and prickly shrub, and the rose in particular is utilized as a symbol of love and beauty in both peace and conflict. It is a shrub plant with over 200 cultivars and hundreds of species (Horn, 1992). (Kim et al., 2003). While some species are native to Africa, North America, and Europe, a significant portion of species is native to Asia. In the Indo-Pak region, Rose flavored kulfi, ice cream, and Rooh Afza are the most widely consumed foods. Additionally, rose blooms are utilized in cosmetics and fragrances.
The production of roses has historically been much smaller; but, after the Second World War, it has become more significant. At the beginning of the 20th century, new technologies were incorporated into the production of flowers (Ozkan et al., 1997; Sayn et al., 2003; Boran, 2008). For the growth and promotion of roses, floriculture industries are highly valued worldwide, however, there is a dearth of these sectors in the nation. The rose is one of the most widely used flowers in trade on a global scale and is used on every occasion on local or global markets. The top nations for rose production include Kenya, Japan, Italy, the United States, the Netherlands, Israel, and Colombia. In the past, roses were solely produced to make items like jam, rosewater, and fragrances (Byczynski, 1997).
Scientific name: Rosa indica
1. The rose has represented love, purity, devotion, beauty, and spirituality throughout human history.
2. Rose is a type of woody perennial flowering plant in the Rosaceae family. The plant can reach a height of 6 meters.
3. The roses can be upright shrubs, climbers, or trailers, and their stems are frequently covered with thorns, which are sharp prickles of varying sizes and forms.
4. On the stem, the leaves are borne alternately. They range in length from 5 to 15 cm in the majority of species, are pinnate with 3 to 13 leaflets, and contain basal stipules. The leaflets typically have serrated borders.
5. Flowers come in a variety of sizes and colours, ranging from white, yellow, pink, and red. They are typically huge and showy. Flowers contain 4-5 sepals and five or more petals. In nature, insects are used to pollinate roses.
6. Rose blossoms range in size from small miniatures with a diameter of 1.25 cm (0.5 inches) to hybrid flowers with a diameter of more than 17.5 cm (7 inches).
7. A rose hip, which resembles a berry, is the rose’s aggregate fruit.
8. Hips are the fleshy, occasionally edible, berry-like “fruit” (really the flower cup) of the rose plant. They typically range in colour from red to orange.
Seed. Usually, it takes two years for rose seeds to sprout.
Roses can grow and tolerate pH ranges up to 8, although they prefer loamy, silty, and sandy soil that drains well and has a pH between 6 and 7.5.
Since roses are high feeders, they require fertilizer input; unfortunately, this input is typically not provided in sufficient quantities. While being important plant nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) boost the functions of plant growth and the components of yield quality. N generally contributes to the formation of chlorophyll, which promotes vegetative growth; P helps in seedling development and stimulates the growth of fruit and flowers; potassium increases stem strength and resistance to disease and drought; it also plays a direct effect on component quality.
Roses require certain watering, however, many rose genera are drought-tolerant and able to make up for the water deficiency. The amount of water a rose needs is dependent on several variables.
Temperature directly influences how much water is needed. As a result of increased transpiration and evaporation caused by high temperatures, more water is needed.
More water is needed because of an increased rate of evapotranspiration caused by the wind.
Due to the slow rate of evaporation and transpiration as well as the soil’s ability to retain water, less water is needed at high humidity levels.
Diseases and insect pests
Insect pests and diseases of roses include aphids, thrips, powdery mildew, rose rust, curculio beetles, downy mildew leaf-cutting bee, caterpillars, verticillium wilt, rose mosaic, leaf spot or blast, rose chafer, and nematodes, among others.
Roses are often harvested when they are fully grown and open, and then they are sold or kept in a refrigerator until they are distributed at the point of sale.
1. Essential oil
It is one of the least harmful essential oils and one of the most expensive. Numerous volatile oils, including geraniol, nerol, citronellol, farnesol, linalool, Limonene, 1-p-menthene, myrcene, pinene, rose oxide, tannins, organic acids, beta-carotene, cyanin, resin, and waxes are present in it. The ingredients differ according to the species of rose. Hemorrhage, liver issues, nausea, exhaustion, ulcers, asthma, dehydration, and bacterial infections of the stomach, colon, and urinary tract are just a few of the conditions that can be treated with rose essential oil in combination with carrier oils like almond or grapefruit. Rose oil from Bulgaria is used as a skin treatment.
2. Rose water
Rose petals are mostly utilized in the steam distillation process that produces rose oil. Rose water, a wonderful calming agent that calms the nerves and is utilized as a flavouring agent in many goods around the world, is a byproduct of steam distillation. It treats eczema, dermatitis, and dry, scaly skin. Rose water made from rose leaves purifies blood, eases constipation, and treats chicken pox and measles.
3. Rose essence
Rose essence is particularly effective for reducing stress and depression because it is high in flavonoids, tannins, antioxidants, and vitamins A, B3, C, D, and E. It is fantastic for skin care.
4. Edible processed products
Some of the well-known rose preserves include rose summer drinks, rose jam (also known as rose-hip marmalade), and rose-petal jelly.
5. Rose Tea
A fever can be reduced with the use of a tea made from rose petals, leaves, hips (flowers that have swelled to seed), or mixtures of these. Additionally, it efficiently lessens skin rashes while detoxifying. Because rose tea contains flavonoids, it cleanses the liver and gall bladder as well as treats minor sore throats, fever-related rashes, and chest and bronchial congestion, among other things. It strengthens the immune system and bile secretion. Vitamins are plentiful in rose hip tea. Additionally, it is rich in flavonoids, citric acid, fructose, sucrose, xylose, malic acid, tannins, zinc, and vitamins A, B3, C, D, and E. As a result, bladder infections and diarrhoea can be effectively treated when taken as tea.
Roses can be referred to as medicinal herbs because of their healing qualities. Different secondary metabolites and nutrients in the form of vitamins and minerals can be found in the petals, rose hip, stem, leaves, and roots of a rose plant. Significant anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity have also been documented for extracts from various rose plant sections. To produce rose essential oil and rose water, three primary kinds are grown for commercial purposes. They are Rosa damascene, Rosa gallica, and Rosa centifolia. Rosehip oil is made using the Rosa canina plant. Vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, C, E, and K are among the nutrients found in rose petals and hips, along with folic acid, potassium, calcium, iron, tannin, and a variety of enzymes. Rose flowers are aphrodisiac, astringent, anti-depressant, spasmodic, promote bile production, cleaning, anti-bacterial, and antiseptic. The tea made from rose hips is also used to treat diarrhoea. Rose petals have modest sedative, antibacterial, inflammatory, and parasite properties. They are also helpful for decreasing cholesterol, a good heart tonic, and a mild laxative. Rose petals are naturally antibacterial, making them an excellent therapy for cuts, bruises, rashes, and incisions. They are also excellent for sore throats and ulcers due to their anti-inflammatory characteristics. They can stimulate the liver, boost circulation, and improve hunger. When the eyes are burning, eye drops or eye wash made from rose petals are used. Rosa indica is used to treat diarrhoea, asthma, leukoderma, and oral inflammation. Rose essential oil is used in creams to treat dry skin. In the cosmetics sector, rose oil or extract is frequently utilized as a component of products including body wash, perfume, body spray, and soap. According to certain studies, certain rose-derived chemicals may contribute to anxiety relief and relaxation.
Rose plant flavonoids have antidepressant properties. Scientific research has shown that amyloid B, the pathogenic cause of Alzheimer’s disease, can be decreased by the rose extract. Eugenol and geraniol content affect antiepileptic actions.
2. HIV and heart disease prevention
Few chemical substances were found in rose (Rosa damascene), however, kaempferol 1 and 3-O-B-Dglucopyranoside 3 and 6 were highly effective against HIV infections.
3. Enhances the digestive system
It calms nausea, restores the integrity of the intestinal wall after damage, and successfully treats digestive diseases like gastroenteritis and stomach ulcers. To aid with digestion after meals, dried rose petals are infused. Diarrhea and slow digestion are treated using tinctures made from rose flower petals.
4. Improves respiratory system
Treatment of asthma coughs, and hay fever is among the respiratory advantages. Rosehip syrup works wonders at curing coughs.
5. Strengthens reproductive system
They are used to treat irregular or heavy menstruation when combined with other medicines. Rose has a long history of use in the treatment of gynecological issues, having a significant impact on cramps, leucorrhea, irregular menses, and uterine problems. Flower decoctions are used with motherwort to lessen heavy menstrual flow.
6. An anti-inflammatory effect
Compresses soaked in dried floral infusions can be used topically to treat headaches, ocular inflammation, or any other inflammatory condition. Gargle with flower infusions on their own or in combination with sage to treat sore throats.
7. Additionally, rose oil has sedative, cicatrizing, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and cicatrizing effects.
8. Additionally, it enhances the health of the stomach, liver, uterus, and heart.
Frequently Asked Questions
Question: What is rose Indica?
Ans: The king of flowers, the rose (Rosa indica L.), also known as Gulab-Jo-Gul in Sindhi, is a member of the Rosaceae family. It is a woody and prickly shrub, and the rose in particular is utilized as a symbol of love and beauty in both peace and conflict.
Question What is the common name of Rosa Indica?
Ans: cyme rose
Question What are the uses of roses?
Ans: Roses are most famous for being decorative plants that are grown for their blossoms in gardens and occasionally inside. Roses can be referred to as medicinal herbs because of their healing qualities. Different secondary metabolites and nutrients in the form of vitamins and minerals can be found in the petals, rose hip, stem, leaves, and roots of a rose plant. Significant anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity have also been documented for extracts from various rose plant sections.
Question: Can I drink rose water?
Question: Can you eat rose petals?
Question: Can a rose be poisonous?
Ans: The term “rose” appears in the common name of many flowering plants, however, they are not roses. Children and dogs can become ill from the Rose of Sharon, Primrose, Rosebay, Christmas Rose, Moss Rose, or Desert Rose poisoning.