Pecteilis korigadensis: Introduction, Etymology, Distribution, Classification, Description, and Threats   

Pecteilis korigadensis: Introduction, Etymology, Distribution, Classification, Description, and Threats 


The Western Ghats are an area rich in biological richness and a hotspot for biodiversity worldwide. They support a large number of indigenous flowering plant species and serve as a major hub for the domestication of many species of economically significant plant life. Due to their reputation as the “cradle of evolution,” certain recognised sections of the Western Ghats have been added to the UNESCO World Natural Heritage list (MOEF&CC 2015). Even though they only make up 5% of India’s overall land area, the Western Ghats are home to more than 7000 plant species or 27% of the country’s total. The Western Ghats are home to an estimated 2253 indigenous plant species (Nayar et al. 2014). A huge diversity of vegetation types and a wide range of rainfall patterns in this natural landscape sustain a wide range of orchid species (Chitale et al. 2014). Approximately one-third of the 306 orchid species recorded from the Western Ghats to date are indigenous (Nayar et al. 2014). These orchids are primarily found on lateritic plateaus, shola forests, and semi-evergreen forests. The Western Ghats region has seen a lot of taxonomic activity, and numerous researchers’ botanical excursions have led to the discovery of numerous new species (Kumar et al. 2016, Jayanthi et al. 2017). The Western Ghats have seen the discovery of more than 27 orchid species in the past 50 years (1950-2000), although the species discovery curve has not yet reached an asymptote (Aravind et al., 2007)


Kingdom: Plantae

Order: Asparagales

Familia: Orchidaceae

Subfamilia: Orchidoideae

Tribus: Orchideae

Genus: Pecteilis

Species: Pecteilis korigadensis

Etymology: Named after the location in which the famed Korigad Fort is located, a significant historical site connected to the Maratha emperor Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

Distribution: Unique to the Aamby Valley in the Pune District.

Habitat & Ecology: At an elevation of 640 metres, there are open grassy slopes with semi-evergreen plants. Pecteilis gigantea, Eulophia spectabilis (Dennstedt 1818: 38), and Habenaria longicorniculata Graham (1839: 202), among others, can also be found in this habitat, Suresh (1988: 300). Impatiens, Desmodium, Smithia, Curcuma, grasses, and other herbaceous species are examples. During the rainy season (June to mid-October), this habitat’s distinctive red soil remains humid for a while before drying out completely (November to May).


1. Pecteilis korigadensis is different from P. gigantea, P. henryi, P. susannae, and P. triflora in that it has cauline leaves with large, conspicuous flowers and long spurs, a trilobed lip with lateral lobes spreading, a denticulate lip with few lacerations toward the apex, and a midlobe that is shorter than lateral lobes.

2. Terrestrial plants with a height of up to 50 cm (including inflorescence). 2, oblong, 4.0–5.0 1.5–2.0 cm tubers, and 8,- 0.5 cm thick roots.

3. Stems are upright, leafy all over, and 2-3 sheathed at the base.

4. Leaves 7, alternating, oblong to lanceolate, 3.5-14.5, 1.8-3.5 cm, acute at apex, border whole, sheathing and amplexicaul at the base, midnerve noticeable beneath, with 3 parallel veins on each side.

5. Basal leaves are smaller, increasing larger at somewhat below the middle of the stem. An 8 cm long, 6-flowered terminal raceme with a 2 cm long peduncle covered at the base by broad sterile bracts is the inflorescence.

6. Five sterile bracts, sheathed at the base, lanceolate, foliaceous, 5.0–7.5 1.4–1.5 cm, apex acuminate, entire edge. Lanceolate, 4.2–5.2 cm long, 0.8–1.4 cm wide, acuminate with filiform apex, whole edge; equal to or slightly longer than ovary.

7. Ovary fusiform, 4.8 cm long, ribbed, arching from the stem, bloated and green at the lower portion, pale green-white at apex;

8. Flowers white, 5 cm across; pedicel 2 mm long.

9. The sepals are open and spreading; the dorsal sepal is upright, broadly elliptic-ovate, cymbiform, 2.0 to 1.8 cm, acute at apex; the margin is entire; the lateral sepals are obliquely ovate, 2.5 to 1.5 cm; the margins roll backwards; the lateral veins are further separated into 3 veinlets.

10. Petals are upright, close to the borders of the dorsal sepal, linear-oblong in shape (2.0 0.3 cm), sharp at the apex, and with an entire, 2-veined margin. Lip spurred, trilobed, claw 5–6 mm, midlobe linear, 3.5–0.2 cm, pointing downwards, slightly curved at tip; lateral lobes narrow, 4.5–0.3 cm, extending upwards, at roughly 900 angles with midlobe; tridenticulate along the upper border; whole along the lower edge with 2-3–filiform apical lacerations. 11 cm long, subclavate, and entirely green, the spur’s mouth is W-shaped with a ligule near the aperture.

11.  Anther locules are widely spread on a broad connective, and the column is upright, broadly rectangular, 5 7 mm, white, and subretuse at the apex. Each side of the 2.5 mm x 4.0 mm rostellum has a rugose gland. beneath the rostellum, a stigma. Viscidia 2, white, globose, 1 mm; pollinia 2, 1.3 cm long; pollinium yellow, 4 mm; caudicle, 8 mm.

Fruits: Not seen

Flowering: At the end of the monsoon season, in September and October (end of September to the first week of October).

Threats: restricted to a limited region that is in danger from neighbourhood grazing, trampling, and exotic species. The growth of agriculture is one potential concern because the habitat is close to fields soon. This species coexists gracefully with Pecteilis gigantea, whose flowers the residents of the area used to decorate their homes during the Ganpati celebration. Due to its size and appeal, there is a considerable likelihood that this orchid will be removed. According to what is currently known, the species is quite uncommon. A single locale had only one plant visible. To determine the specific threat category, more research in a similar area is necessary. But according to the IUCN criterion, due to its small range and probable threats, it is currently classified as critically endangered B1a (2012).

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