Mexican argemone: History, Classification, Habitat, Chemical Constituents, and, Uses
Mexican argemone Linn. (Papaveracea) is also known as Satyanashi and the Mexican prickly poppy. It grows as a wasteland weed throughout practically all of India. It is also regarded as a crop weed in several regions. There are 12 species in the genus Argemone. The herb is said to be utilised in Ayurveda as a diuretic, purgative, and worm destroyer. The medicament made from this herb is used to treat tapeworm-related issues in homoeopathic treatment. Alkaloids found in the plant include berberine, protopine, sarguinarine, optisine, and chelerytherine.
Argemone Mexicana, a weed of the Papaveraceae family that is native to Mexico and currently widespread each year, is typically associated with farming operations and harsh settings. It is a major weed for many cash crops in tropical, subtropical, and humid climates around the world. This strict plant species is regarded as a health danger. It is irritating to the farmers if taken with tainted food since it causes severe itching.
A. mexicana was mistakenly introduced as a contaminant in seed, as an ornamental plant, or for cultivation primarily for ethnobotanical research. The history of its inception and global dissemination is poorly understood. It was originally noted on Ascension in 1828 and had become the most widespread weed on St. Helena by 1814. It was unintentionally introduced to New Zealand in the 1890s together with imported wheat. The plant was originally noted in 1934 and was brought to Hawaii as an ornamental. Tye noted that the plant was still very uncommon and expressed concern that it might pose a future threat. It was originally observed in the wild in the Czech Republic in 1965, but it now seems to be extinct.
Species: Argemone Mexicana
Common Name: Mexican Poppy, Yellow Mexican poppy, Prickly poppy, Satyanashi
Argemone mexicana typically grows in floodplains, riverbanks, disturbed regions, fallow and cultivated soils, and roadside edges. It is a serious crop weed as well as a competitor and, in some situations, a replacement for natural plants.
1. Argemone mexicana is an upright, spiky annual or biennial herb that can grow up to 1 m tall and has a taproot that is somewhat branched.
2. The stem is upright, branching, typically thorny, pale bluish-green, and when cut, it oozes a foul-smelling yellow sap.
3. Leaves are alternating, without petioles, up to 15 cm long, deeply lobed with irregularly serrated, spiky margins, and prominent greyish-white veins on the upper bluish-green surface of the leaves. At the apex of the branches, large, solitary flowers with six rounded petals and an impressive diameter of 2.5–5 cm appear.
4. Flowers are solitary, 2.5-4.5 cm in diameter, covered in one or two leafy bracts, and have three prickly sepals, six yellow to pale orange petals, and many stamens.
5. Fruit is a spiny, 2.5–5 cm long, and 2 cm wide capsule. Its tip has 4-6 valves that open to release many seeds. The fruit is an egg- or oblong-shaped capsule that is prickly and contains countless tiny black seeds. The stem, leaves, and capsule of A. Mexicana forma leiocarpa, a type that grows in West Africa, has few or no prickles.
6. Numerous, globular, netted, and brownish-black in colour seeds.
7. In Indian circumstances, there is year-round flowering.
8. Roots, leaves, seeds, and yellow juice are useful components.
Whole plant: Protopine, sanguinarine, chelerytherine, pancorine, (+)-argenaxine, angoline, aronttianamide, dihydrocheilantifoline, oxyberberine, and N-demethyloxysanguinarine are all present throughout the whole plant.
Seed oil: oleic, linoleic, myristic, and palmitic acids are found in seed oil. “Yellow juice” is berberine. Mexicanic acid and mexicanol from leaves. Dihydropalmitine Hydroxide; Berberine, Protopine, Ferulic, Tannic, Caffeic, Benzoic, and Cinnamic Acids are found in seeds (Singh et al., 2010; Rajvaidhya et al., 2012).
Leaves: protomexicine, mexitin, 8-methoxydihydrosanguinarine, 13-oxoprotopine, rutin, quercitrin, and eriodictyol (Singh et al., 2012; Koumari et al., 2013)
The plant purifies the body, induces urination, and kills worms, according to Ayurveda. It treats bilious fevers, skin disorders, inflammations, and leprosy. An antihelmintic is a root. Juice is used to treat corneal opacity and ophthalmia. A sedative and purgative, seeds. In India, seeds that resemble mustard seeds are used to falsify mustard seeds. When combined with cooking oil made from mustard, seeds produce toxic, non-edible oil that can result in deadly dropsy. The medicament made from this herb is used to treat tapeworm-related issues in homoeopathic treatment.
Other uses: The plant is deemed useful for reclaiming alkaline soils. Oil cake is utilised as manure. As they contain adequate amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, dried and powdered plants are advised as green manure. Crystalline manganese carbonate has been used to successfully produce biodiesel from the seed oil of A. Mexicana. Satyanashi oil often referred to as seed oil, is used in the manufacture of soap, as a lubricant, and as a termite repellent. Svarnakshiri churna and tail are ayurvedic formulations.