LIFE PROCESSES: Short Answer Type Question for Class 10th Chapter 10 JKBOSE/NCERT
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]
Question: Name the acid presents in the following:
(i) Tomato (ii) Vinegar (iii) Tamarind
Ans: The acids present in the following are:
(i)Tomato: Citric acid
(ii) Vinegar: Acetic acid
(iii) Tamarind: Tartaric acid
Question: Name the intermediate and the end products of glucose breakdown in aerobic respiration.
Ans: The intermediate and end products of glucose breakdown in aerobic respiration are as follows:
Intermediate Product: Pyruvate (or pyruvic acid)
End Products: Carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O
Question: 3. Name the type of asexual reproduction in which two individuals are formed from a single parent and the parental identity is lost. Write the first step from where such a type of reproduction begins.
Ans: The type of asexual reproduction in which two individuals are formed from a single parent and the parental identity is lost is called binary fission.
The first two stages of binary fission are as follows:
Stage 1: Replication of Genetic Material – The parent cell’s genetic material, usually a circular chromosome, is replicated, resulting in two identical copies.
Stage 2: Cell Elongation – The cell elongates and the two copies of the genetic material move apart, positioning themselves at opposite ends of the cell.
Question: (i) What happens to the heart when muscles work harder?
(ii) Which body system is directly affected when a person has heart disease?
(iii) Which cells increase in number during infection?
Ans: (i) When muscles work harder, the heart beats faster and with more force to pump a larger volume of blood. This is known as an increased heart rate or tachycardia.
(ii) When a person has heart disease, the cardiovascular system is directly affected.
(iii) White blood cells, specifically lymphocytes and phagocytes, increase in number during an infection
Question: State the role of the following in the human digestive system:
(i) Digestive enzymes (ii) Hydrochloric acid (iii) Villi
Ans: The role of the following in the human digestive system is as follows:
(i) Digestive enzymes: Digestive enzymes break down complex molecules into simpler forms, aiding in the process of digestion.
(ii) Hydrochloric acid: Hydrochloric acid helps in the breakdown of food and provides an acidic environment for enzyme activity in the stomach.
(iii) Villi: Villi are finger-like projections in the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption of digested food into the bloodstream.
Question: How does respiration in plants differ from that in animals?
Ans: Respiration in plants differs from that in animals in the following ways:
(i) Plants use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide during both day and night,
(ii) Plants do not have lungs or a circulatory system, so gas exchange occurs through stomata and diffusion,
(iii) Plants can perform photosynthesis, which produces oxygen and glucose.
Question: List in tabular form three differences between arteries and veins.
|Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart||Carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart|
|Have thick and muscular walls||Have thin and less muscular walls|
|Have no valves||Have valves to prevent backflow|
|Blood pressure is higher||Blood pressure is lower|
Question: (i) What is the role of HCl in our stomach?
(ii) What is the emulsification of fats?
(iii) Which protein-digesting enzyme is present in pancreatic juice?
Ans: (i) The role of HCl in our stomach is to create an acidic environment that activates the enzyme pepsin, which breaks down proteins in food.
(ii) Emulsification of fats is the breakdown of large fat droplets into smaller droplets, increasing the surface area for enzyme action. This is done by bile salts produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
(iii) The protein-digesting enzyme present in pancreatic juice is trypsin.
Question: What is “translocation”? Why it is essential for plants?
Ans: Translocation is the transport of sugars, amino acids, and other organic compounds from the leaves to other parts of the plant through the phloem. Plants need to distribute nutrients to growing regions, storage organs, and reproductive structures.
Question: Dark reaction of photosynthesis does not need light. Do plants undergo dark reactions at night explain?
Ans: Dark reactions of photosynthesis, also known as the Calvin cycle, do not require light directly. They can occur in plants during the day or night as long as the necessary products of the light-dependent reactions (ATP and NADPH) are available.
Question: Differentiate between inhalation and exhalation.
Ans: Inhalation is the process of taking in air or oxygen into the lungs, while exhalation is the process of expelling air or carbon dioxide from the lungs.
Question: What is the role of skin, lungs and intestine in the process of excretion in man?
Ans: The role of skin in the process of excretion in humans is the elimination of sweat, which contains metabolic waste products. The role of the lungs is the elimination of carbon dioxide produced during cellular respiration. The role of the intestine is the elimination of undigested food materials such as faeces.