Improvement in Food Resources: Questions and Answers for Class 9th Chapter 15 (CBSE/NCERT)
Question: What is genetic manipulation? How does it help with agricultural methods?
Ans: The act of inserting a particular gene into the genetic makeup of a crop to produce the desired traits is known as genetic manipulation. The following are some examples of desirable traits that can be obtained by genetic modification:
High yield, improved quality, broader adaptability, desirable agronomic features, and biotic and abiotic tolerance are only a few of the characteristics.
Question: Describe a crop-producing technique that ensures a high yield.
Ans: One way of crop production that guarantees a high yield is crop patterning. Crops can be grown in several different ways. Crop rotation, intercropping, and mixed cropping are a few of them.
(i) Mixed cropping: This is the practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same plot of land. For instance: Growing wheat with mustard (or gram). This lowers the likelihood of crop failure.
(ii) Intercropping: This technique involves cultivating two or more crops on the same land in a predetermined arrangement. A specific number of rows of one crop are followed by a specific number of rows of a different crop. For instance, soybeans and corn. This pattern maximizes fertilizer usage while being the most effective at controlling weeds and pests.
Crop rotation is the practice of cultivating the same crops in a specific succession. This pattern works best for keeping the soil fertile and for preventing bug and weed growth.
Question: Why are fertilizers and manure used in fields?
Ans: Fertilizers and manure are used to improve and increase crop yield.
Question: What are the benefits of crop rotation and intercropping?
Ans: The benefits of intercropping
(i) A portion of the field is used for the cultivation of two or more crops.
(ii) Reduces the likelihood of intraspecific competition and ensures that the nutrients are used to their full potential.
(iii) Prevents pests and diseases from spreading throughout the entire plant population.
(iv) It helps keep the soil fertile.
Crop rotation has the following benefits:
(i)Two or more crops are grown in a single year.
(ii) It raises soil fertility, which in turn boosts agricultural productivity.
(iii) Less nitrogenous fertilizer is required since leguminous plant growth aids in fixing atmospheric nitrogen, which enriches the soil with nitrogenous chemicals.
(iv) Crop rotation aids in preventing pest attacks on crops because pests are prevented from attacking crops year-round by crop rotation.
Question: How can grain losses in storage happen?
Ans: Both biotic and abiotic variables contribute to storage grain loss. Rodents, insects, mice, fungi, and bacteria are examples of biological variables, while the storage area’s humidity and temperature are examples of abiotic ones.
Question: What are the advantages of good animal care for farmers?
Ans: Animal husbandry, which includes correct shelter, care, food, and protection from pests and diseases, is the management of farm animals properly. There are many ways that proper animal husbandry practices can help a farmer, some of which are as follows:
(i) Adequate shelter and protection from pests and diseases raise the economic worth of animals.
(ii) It is possible to produce large quantities of animal products like milk, meat, eggs, fur, etc.
(iii)The ability to generate superior animal breeds exists.
Question: What are the benefits of cattle farming?
Ans: Benefits of cattle farming include
(i) Production of high milk-yielding animals.
(ii) Production of good breed of drought animals.
Question: What is a common practice in beekeeping, fishing, and poultry for enhancing production?
Ans: The typical practices in beekeeping, fishing, and poultry for raising production levels are:
(i) Cross-breeding results in a better variety
(ii) satisfies nutritional needs.
(iii) Adequate treatment and defense against illnesses are guaranteed.
Question: What are the differences between aquaculture, mariculture, and Capture fishing?
Ans: Capture fishing
(i) involves catching fish from natural resources such ponds, canals, rivers, etc.
(ii) Fish can be easily located with this technique, and fishing nets are used to capture them.
(i) Mariculture is the technique of raising different marine fish species in the open ocean.
(ii) In this technique, fish are located using echo-locators and satellites, and then they are caught using various types of nets.
(i) Aquaculture is the method of raising fish in both freshwater and the ocean.
(ii) Using this technique, fishing nets can readily identify and capture fish.
Question: What are the benefits of eating grains, beans, fruits, and vegetables?
Ans: Cereals give us the carbs we need for energy. Carbohydrates from cereals provide the body’s need for energy. We get the proteins we need for bodybuilding from pulses. In addition to a wide range of vitamins and minerals, fruits and vegetables also contain tiny amounts of proteins, carbs, and fats that are necessary for healthy body formation, growth, and maintenance.
Question: How do biological and inorganic elements impact crop production?
Ans: The productivity of crops is greatly influenced by biotic and abiotic variables. Crop damage from biotic variables including microbes, insects, and nematodes as well as abiotic elements like salinity, drought, waterlogging, cold, heat, and frost reduce crop output.
Question: How are nutrients ingested by plants?
Ans: Plants need different nutrients, and they receive them from numerous sources. About 16 fundamental elements are needed by plants, of which carbon and oxygen are provided by the atmosphere, hydrogen by water, and the remaining 13 important nutrients by the soil.
Question: Why are they called macronutrients and what are they?
Ans: The answer is that macronutrients are the nutrients that should essentially be ingested in high amounts. Plants require roughly 16 different nutrients for growth and development, with the soil providing 13 of those nutrients out of the total of 16. Of the 13 nutrients, about 6 are macronutrients since they are needed in considerable amounts by plants. Nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and sulphur are the macronutrients.
Question: What elements could result in grain losses during storage?
Ans: Loss of grains during storage is caused by biotic and abiotic factors. Rodents, insects, mice, fungi, and bacteria are examples of biological variables, while the storage area’s humidity and temperature are examples of abiotic ones.
Question: Which technique most frequently applies to enhancing cow breeds, and why?
Ans: The most popular technique for enhancing cow breeds is cross-breeding. Through cross-breeding, it is possible to create animals with desirable traits by mating a native breed with an exotic breed. Consider a cross between an exotic breed of cattle with a long lactation period and a local breed of cattle with great disease resistance, which produces offspring with the desired characteristics of both breeds.
Question: Which management techniques are typical in the dairy and poultry industries?
Ans: The following management techniques are utilized in both dairy and poultry farming:
(i) Proper shelter maintenance. (ii) Particular nutritional needs. (iii) Defense against illness and pests.
Question: How do you get fish?
Ans: There are two ways to get fish. Fish are obtained in two ways: through capture fishing, which uses natural resources, and through culture fishing, which uses fish farms.
Question: What benefits does composite fish culture offer?
Ans: In composite fish culture, a mix of five or six different fish species is raised in a single pond. Since the species chosen to coexist have different feeding preferences, it is made sure that they do not compete for food. This ensures that all of the pond’s food resources are used, which naturally raises the amount of fish the pond produces.
Question: What desired traits should be present in bee kinds that can produce honey?
Ans: The following traits are desirable in bee kinds that are good for making honey: (i) Stinglessness, extended beehive occupancy, and successful reproduction (ii) The ability to harvest honey with high content.
Question: Why should biological control techniques and preventative actions be favoured for protecting crops?
Ans: To protect crops, it is preferable to adopt suitable preventative measures and biological control techniques.
(i) Preventive methods including crop rotation and intercropping, as well as correct seedbed preparation and timing of seed sowing, help to reduce weeds. It aids in keeping the soil’s nutrient level stable.
(ii) Summer ploughing and the use of resistant types can eradicate weeds and pests.
(iii) Biological control techniques can lessen the likelihood of environmental pollution.