The flower is a sexual reproduction-specific modified shoot.
The following components make up a typical flower:
1. Pedicel: Pedicillate flowers have a stalk, but sessile flowers do not. It emerges from the axil of the ‘Bract’ leaf-like structure. It is considered to be Bracteate if it is present, and ebracteate if it is lacking.
2. Thalamus: The bulged tip of the Pedicel on which flower whorls such as the Calyx, Corolla, Androecium, and Gynoecium are present is known as the Thalamus.
3. Calyx (K): Calyx is the protective outermost whorl. It’s made up of tiny green Sepals. Polysepalous refers to a flower with free sepals. Gamosepalous if the sepals are united.
4. Corolla (C): The Corolla is the Flower’s second whorl. It comes in a variety of colors and is frequently scented. Petal is the smallest unit of Corolla l. It is termed to be Polypetalous if the petals are free.
5. Androecium (A): The third and male reproductive whorl of a flower is Androecium. It is made up of a large number of stamens. Long Filaments with two Anther lobes containing pollen grains are linked by connective to each Stamen. When the filaments of all the stamens are fused and the anthers are left free, the filaments form a single bundle known as Monadelphous.
6. Gynoecium(G): Gynoecium is the female reproductive whorl on the inside. It is made up of three parts: the Basal Bulbous Ovary, the Middle Style, and the Terminal Stigma. Multicarpellory is an ovary with multiple carpels. If the carpels are syncarpous, the ovules on the axile placentation are multilocular.
The flower is described using the following terms.
1. Axillary: A flower that develops in the axil of the leaf
2. Terminal: A flower that develops at the branch’s end.
3. Pedicel: The flower’s stalk.
4. Pedicillate: It refers to a flower that has a stalk attached to it.
5. Sessile: A flower that does not have a stalk.
6. Bracteate: Bracteate is a flower that has a bract attached to it.
7. Ebracteate: It refers to a flower that is devoid of bracts.
8. Bracteole: On the pedicel, a little scale-like structure develops in pairs.
9. Bracteolate: Bracteole-bearing flower.
10. Ebracteolate: Bracteole-free flower.
11. Involucre: Bracts and Bracteoles are arranged in whorls in the involucre.
12. Complete: A flower with all four whorls, namely K, C, A, and G.
13. Incomplete: A flower with one or more whorls missing.
14. Acyclic: Floral organs in a spiral arrangement.
15. Cyclic: A circle made up of floral organs.
16. Dichlamydeous (Heterochlamydeous): A flower that has both a calyx and a corolla.
17. Monochlamydeous (Homochlamydeous): A Perianth Flower.
18. Androecium or Gynoecium, but no Calyx or Corolla.
19. Pistillate: A single-Pistilled Achlamydeous bloom.
20. Staminate: A single-stamen Achlamydeous flower.
21. Unisexual: A flower with only one of the reproductive organs, either Androecium or gynoecium, is known as a Unisexual.
22. Bisexual: – A flower with both Androecium and Gynoecium reproductive organs.
23. Pentamerous: Flowers have five sepals and five petals in each whorl.
24. Tetramerous: Flowers have four or more floral organs.
25. Trimerous: It refers to a flower with three tepals.
26. Actinomorphic(Regular): When the flower’s axis is cut through in any plane (Radial symmetry).
27. ZYgomorphic(Irregular): When a flower is sliced through the axis, it produces two symmetrical portions in one plane.
28. Glume: In grass, sterile bracts.
29. Lemma: In the grass, there is a fertile bract.
30. Staminode: Staminode is the name for the sterile stamen.
31. Epipetalous: Refers to stamens clinging to petals.
Based on Ovary’s position in relation to the other floral whorls. The following are the three types of flowers:-
1. Hypogynous Flower: A hypogynous flower is one in which the Thalamus is dome-shaped and the floral parts Calyx, Corolla, Androecium, and Gynoecium are developed below the Gynoecium. The ovary is said to be in a superior position. E,g Hibiscus and coconut.
2. Perigynous: A Perigynos flower is one in which the Thalamus is cup-shaped, the Gynoecium is centrally located, and the Calyx, Corolla, and Androecium grow from the cup’s rim. Ovary’s location is described as Semi superior or Semi inferior.e,g Rose
3. Epigynous: An Epigynous flower is one in which the Thalamus is cup-shaped and entirely joined with the ovary, and the Calyx, Corolla, and Androecium develop above the ovary. The Ovary is said to be in the ‘inferior’ posture.e,g Guava