Diseases of the Kidney: Stones, Pyelonephritis, Renal Failure, Dialysis, and Kidney Transplant

Stones in the kidneys

Kidney stones are solid accretions (crystals) of dissolved minerals in urine discovered inside the kidneys or ureters. They are also known as nephrolithiasis, Urolithiases, or Renal calculi. They range in size from a grain of sand to the size of a golf ball. Kidney stones usually flow through the body through the urine stream; if they grow large enough before passing (on the order of millimeters), obstruction of a ureter and urine distention can cause significant discomfort in the flank, lower abdomen, and groyne. Gallstones are unrelated to kidney stones.

Study of a Case

When my friend detected blood in her urine, she was 34 weeks pregnant. She went to her OBGYN right away and was diagnosed with a bladder infection and prescribed an antibiotic. The following morning, she was in excruciating pain. She was transported to the emergency room, where she was diagnosed with kidney stones. The physicians stated that as long as she was pregnant, there was nothing they could do. The following three weeks of her life were spent in excruciating pain and on a variety of medicines. CAT scans were performed after she had her baby, and she was told she had 6 kidney stones. It took her three more weeks to pass all of the stones, the largest of which was 5 mm in diameter. The stones were examined, and she was told that her body had been accumulating calcium as a result of her pregnancy, which was the source of the kidney stones. She had kidney pain for another six months after passing the stones. She now lives her life on a low-calcium diet in the hopes of preventing further kidney stones.



Pyelonephritis occurs when an infection of the renal pelvis and calices, known as pyelitis, spreads to the remainder of the kidney. It is caused by the spread of the faecal bacterium Escherichia coli from the anal area to the urinary system superiorly. The kidney swells and scars in severe cases, abscesses occur, and the renal pelvis fills with pus. The infected kidney can be badly damaged if left untreated, but antibiotics usually cure it completely.


Immunologic abnormalities, medications or poisons, vascular issues, and systemic diseases can all cause glomerular inflammation. Glomerulonephritis is a type of glomerulonephritis that can be acute, chronic, or progressive. Hematuria and proteinuria, with albumin as the predominant protein, are two primary alterations in the urine that distinguish glomerulonephritis. In addition to a drop in GFR, there is a decrease in urine (glomerular filtration rate). Oliguria is linked to renal failure (less than 400 ml of urine output per day).

Renal Disorder

Uremia is a renal failure illness characterized by increased blood urea and creatinine levels. If detected early enough, acute renal failure can be reversed. Severe hypotension or glomerular disease can both produce acute renal failure. BUN and plasma creatinine level tests are two diagnostic assays. If the reduction in renal function is less than 25%, it is considered a chronic renal failure.

Diabetes Insipidus

 ADH insufficiency or reduction is the cause of this. In water restriction, a person with (DI) is unable to concentrate their pee, causing them to void 3 to 20 liters per day. (DI) is divided into two types: neurogenic and nephrogenic. The kidneys do not respond to ADH in nephrogenic (DI). In most cases, nephrogenic (DI) is defined by a decrease in the kidney’s ability to concentrate urine as well as a rise in water concentration. A hereditary characteristic, an electrolyte problem, or a pharmacological side effect such as lithium could be the cause. The head injury along the hypophysisal tract is the most common cause of neurogenic (DI).

Kidney Transplantation and Dialysis

Humans can survive normally with only one kidney in most cases. Renal failure occurs only when the amount of working kidney tissue is severely reduced. Various drugs are utilized if renal function is impaired, while others are contraindicated. It may be feasible to reverse chronic kidney failure caused by diabetes or high blood pressure if treatment is started early. Dialysis is started if the creatinine clearance (a measure of renal function) has dropped. Dialysis is a medical process in which the blood is filtered outside of the body in a variety of ways.

Dialysis is supportive treatment, a way of “buying time” while waiting for a suitable kidney. On March 4, 1954, at Boston’s Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, the first successful kidney transplant was announced by Dr. Joseph E. Murray, who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1990 for his work, who performed the surgery.

A living donor transplant and a cadaveric (dead donor) transplant are the two forms of kidney transplants. When a patient receives a kidney from a living donor, generally a blood relative, the donor’s blood group and tissue type must be determined to be compatible with the patient’s, and rigorous medical testing are performed to establish the donor’s health. A variety of medical tests must be performed before a cadaveric donor’s organs can be transplanted to ascertain if the organs are healthy. In some countries, the donor’s family must also give their approval to the organ donation. In both circumstances, the recipient of the new organ must take medications to suppress their immune system to avoid the new kidney from being rejected by their body.

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