Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale): History, Characteristics, Chemical Composition, Medicinal, and Traditional uses


Kingdom: Plantae

Order: Asterales

Family: Asteraceae

Genus: Taraxacum

Species: Taraxacum officinale

Common Names

The English word dandelion comes from the French word Dent de Leon, which means “lion’s tooth.” Many Indo-European languages have comparable names for the herb, such as “lion’s tooth”.The serrated margins of the leaves are the source of the name. Taraxacum comes from the Greek word taraxacum, which means “illness treatment.”

Dandelions are called pissenlit (“pee the bed”) and pissabeds in modern French and English, respectively, to represent their diuretic properties. In English, it is sometimes known as the fairy clock, however, the origin of this term is unknown. It is also known as Dudal, Radam, Bathur, and Haend in the Indian Himalayan region (Hajra et al., 1995).


Taraxacum officinale, a common grassland, and the cultivated ground plant is native to Eurasia but has spread throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Dandelion is a good colonizer and seed disperser.

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.) is a perennial Asteraceae plant. The genus Taraxacum contains about 2500 physically distinct plant species. Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. is said to have originated in Europe and is now found across the warm temperate zone. It grows on meadows, lawns, and roadside ditches in northern and western Europe, northwestern Siberia, Greenland, Iceland, and eastern Canada. Taraxacum officinale is employed in the pharmaceutical sector for its roots, leaves, and flowers.


Dandelions are one of the most well-known weeds on the planet. Traditional use predates the creation of written records. The Chinese dandelion (T mongolicum) leaf was first recorded in literature in the Tang Materia Medica (659 AD) and is traditionally used in Chinese medicine to cure abscesses, reduce eye inflammation, and induce diuresis, both externally and orally.

Despite its likely Asian plant origins, dandelion has mythologies and traditional therapeutic uses all over Europe and the herb may have been discussed in Dioscorides’ classic De Materia Medica—Dioscorides used old Greek names for the plants and described them in a way that sounds eerily similar to dandelion. The roots were regularly referred to as liver-beneficial, while the leaves and petals were regarded as diuretics and bitter digestive stimulants in these traditional texts. All parts of the dandelion were eaten as food across its large growing area.


The Asteraceae family includes Taraxacum officinale, also known as dandelion. Dandelion gets its name from the French word Dent de Leon, which means “lion’s tooth.” In many Indo-European countries, the herb is known as “lion’s tooth,” as well as “lion’s tooth” in German and Spanish (diente de Leon). The serrated margins of the leaves allow this to happen. Eurasia is the origin of this plant. Its range includes Asia, Europe, North America, and the Northern Hemisphere’s temperate zone (Grieve, 1931). It’s been seen in India on Alpine meadows and slopes all across the Himalayas. It is found in altitudinal ranges of 1000-4000 m amsl, both extensively and narrowly dispersed (Hajra et al., 1995) It’s also known as Dudal, Radam, Bathur, and Haend in the Indian Himalayan region.

Taraxacum officinale Plant


1.T. officinale, also known as Dandelion, is a perennial herb in the Asteraceae family (Compositae).

2. It grows throughout temperate areas of the world, primarily in lawns, along roadsides, on disturbed banks and coastlines of waterways, and other moist soils.

3. Dandelion (Taraxacum sp.) has long been utilized in herbal medicine, particularly in Asia, Europe, and North America.

4. Dandelion is a short-lived perennial that will grow in almost any soil, although it will thrive in rich soil. They can resist cold and freezing temperatures, as well as being overcrowded.

5. The Rosette of lance-shaped leaves emerges from the crown in the early spring. Individual leaves can be whole or lobed, with toothed lobes incised in a variety of ways, from shallow to deep. On the same plant, different lobe patterns might exist. Caterpillars of several butterfly and moth species feed on the rosette of leaves.

6. It blooms virtually all year, even if its flowers are more noticeable early in the season. Very early in the spring, a flood of bright yellow blossoms blooms

7. Each solitary inflorescence has a daisy-like flower at the end of a smooth, hollow stalk, with several rays and disc flowers carried together.

8. Milky latex sap flows from the stem. Depending on the conditions, the length of the bloom stem varies greatly. Bees and other pollinators like the flowers, and they can be a good supply of nectar early in the season when there aren’t many other flowers blossoming.

9. The seed heads are formed like a globe and follow the blooms. Each seed possesses a pappus, a delicate, white hairy parachute that allows it to be borne by the wind. Up to 20,000 viable seeds can be produced per plant.

10. It can endure drought and weed competition thanks to its deep tap-root, which can grow up to 3 feet long (although is generally 6-12″).

11. This plant’s nearly entire body can be consumed. Make sure the dandelions haven’t been treated with chemicals and wash them carefully to remove all soil and insects from the underside of the leaves or roots, regardless of which part you plan to consume.

12. The calcium, potassium, and iron-rich leaves are best when fresh and sensitive, and are at their most tasty in early spring before the first flower buds form.

13. They can be eaten raw or boiled for ten minutes in boiling water to remove some of the bitterness (especially leaves from mature plants). Alternatively, lemon juice can be used to lessen the bitterness of the greens.

14. Dandelion roots and leaves are thought to be relatively safe, with no known side effects or allergy hazards. Dandelion is widely recognized as a safe food ingredient by the Food and Drug Administration.

15. Leaf and root extracts can be used as a disinfectant in dentistry to stop Enterococcus faecalis from growing. Warts can be cured by squeezing the milky liquid directly from the stem. Raw, in a salad, or a drink, the young leaves are delicious.

Chemical Composition

Williams et al. extracted cinnamic acid, coumarins, flavonoids, and other phytochemicals with the medicinal and therapeutic value from diverse T. officinale plant tissues using a variety of analytical methodologies. Budzianwski extracted a lot of Coumarins and caffeyl tartaric acid from T. officinale leaves. By using standard analytical procedures, a large number of synthetic methyl esters have been identified and isolated from T. officinale leaves.Cichoric acid, monocaffeoyltartaric acid, 4-caffoeylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and similar chemicals are all abundant phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid derivatives). Dandelion root also contains substantial amounts of inulin (a type of fiber known as fructans).

Components used

Taraxacum’s young leaves are commonly eaten as a salad or as a vegetable. Many digestive cocktails and herbal beers include dried leaves as a component. Dandelion Beer is a fermented beverage that is popular in Canada. The blooms are used to make Dandelion Wine, which is popular in Berkshire and Worcestershire. Such wine, they claimed, justified its reputation as an outstanding tonic and blood tonic. Dandelion Coffee is made primarily from roasted roots. Dandelion Coffee is thought to be superior to conventional tea in terms of nerve and digestive system support (Grieve, 1931).

Leaves Extract

Bitter glycosides terpenoids, Beta carotene, Non-provitamin A carotenoids, xanthophylls, chlorophyll, flavonoids, vitamins C and D, many of the B-complex vitamins, choline, iron, silicon, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc, manganese, copper, and phosphorus are all abundant in dandelion leaves.

Roots Extracts

The roots contain bitter glycosides such taraxacin and taraxacerin, tannins, triterpenes, sterols, volatile oil, choline, asparagin, and inulin, as well as tannins, triterpenes, sterols, volatile oil, choline, asparagin, and inulin (Herb Basics). Taraxacin is a bitter compound that is one of the main components.

Traditional and medicinal uses

The first mention of Dandelion as a medication can be found in the works of Arabian physicians from the tenth and eleventh centuries, who refer to it as wild endive known as Taraxcacon (Grieve, 1931). Dandelion roots and leaves were once used to cure liver issues (Grieve, 1931). Boiling dandelion was used by Native Americans to treat renal disease, edoema, skin problems, indigestion, and stomach trouble (Bensky et al., 2004). Dandelion is recognized for its diuretic properties in French. Dandelion is used throughout the Himalayan belt in India. In the Himalayan region of Kashmir, a paste of cooked leaves mixed with a small amount of salt and turmeric (Haldi) is commonly used to cure bone fractures (Malik et al., 2011). In Kashmir, it’s also eaten as a vegetable (personal experience). The entire plant is ground into a paste and administered orally to people who have been bitten by snakes. The paste is also applied topically to wounds. Swollen areas, boils, and sprains respond well to fomentation with the leaves. It’s a good source of food for sheep and goats (Sharma, et al., 2005).

Dandelion Flower

Digestive Effects

Dandelion’s digestive properties have been extensively documented since ancient times, which is why it is commonly used to aid digestion (Pizzorno et al., 1999). Sesquiterpene lactones lend a bitter taste to the plant during this process, which is most noticeable in the leaf but also in the root (especially when picked in the spring) (Kuusi et al., 1985). These chemicals, according to (Faber, 1958), are likewise thought to enhance bile production. Both the leaf and root of the dandelion have been researched for their digestive effects, primarily as bitter digestive stimulants. The demulcent, prebiotic, hypoglycemic, and immune-modulating properties of the dandelion root have all been studied. Dandelion leaf has also been studied as a diuretic and anti-inflammatory agent.


The traditional treatment of warts with fresh dandelion stem latex has not been tested (Yarnell et al., 2009).

Demulcent and Prebiotic Activity

Because of their high inulin content, dandelion roots have a particular demulcent action and prebiotic characteristics. Fall-harvested roots have the most inulin.


Research on the impact of various dandelion extracts and chemicals on the immune system has shown mixed results, with some demonstrating tumor necrosis factor inhibition and others showing activation. This could indicate that dandelion extract has distinct effects on different lymphocyte populations or bodily tissues, or that dandelion can modify immunological responses. Many of the polysaccharides found in dandelions are thought to be essential mediators in immunological interactions. More research into the immune-system effects of dandelions is needed.


Dandelion root has a long history of use for strengthening liver function and treating a variety of dermatologic and systemic illnesses, based on the belief that the plant increases the liver’s detoxification ability. These concepts have gotten very little attention in terms of study. In a recent study, 40 premenopausal women were given a herbal formula containing dandelion (specifically, T Officinalis), turmeric (Curcuma longa), artichoke (Cynara scolymus), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Schisandra (Schisandra Chinensis), and milk thistle (Silybum marianum), a healthy diet, and a placebo.

Gastrointestinal Complaints

Modern studies have found no support for the use of dandelion leaves for indigestion or other atonic gastrointestinal symptoms. A case series of 24 patients with nonspecific chronic colitis who were given a formula containing dandelion (specifically, T officinal), St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), calendula (Calendula officinalis), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) showed significant symptomatic improvement in terms of stool normalization and pain reduction.

Intestinal Metaplasia

When compared to 120 untreated controls, the herbal compound xiao Wei yan powder was very efficient in reversing intestinal metaplasia in 120 patients (91 percent-92 percent of patients normalized) (only 14 percent -21 percent normalized).

                  TOP QUESTIONS

Question: How can you grow Dandelion?

ANS: If you want to cultivate dandelion for a specific purpose, put the seeds on the soil surface or lightly cover them from early spring (4-6 weeks before the last frost) through late summer. In 10 days at 55°F, they should germinate. In rows 12 inches apart, space the plants six to nine inches apart. You can also get a head start by sowing in a cold frame or inside in early spring, then transplanting seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle (but make sure the container is deep enough to accommodate the taproot), then planting them out in early summer. Picking the flower heads is necessary not just to maintain the plant’s energy focused on root and leaf creation, but also to avoid weeding in the future. In 85 to 95 days, your harvest should be ready. However, before spreading your crop, check your local restrictions; growing dandelions is forbidden in several areas (for example, Pueblo, Colorado).

Question: What is the Scientific name of Dandelion?

ANS:  Taraxacum officinales

Question: What is the common name of Taraxacum officinales?

ANS: The herb is known as “lion’s tooth,”. It is also known as Dudal, Radam, Bathur, and Haend in the Indian Himalayan region.

Question: Is Taraxacum officinales Edible?

ANS: This plant’s nearly entire body can be consumed. They can be eaten raw or boiled for ten minutes in boiling water to remove some of the bitterness (especially leaves from mature plants).

Question: What are the most common uses of Roots and Leaves of Dandelion?

Ans: The Roots were regularly referred to as liver-beneficial, while the leaves and petals were regarded as diuretics and bitter digestive stimulants in these traditional texts. All parts of the dandelion were eaten as food across its large growing area.

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