Crop Production and Management: Classification Cultivation and Agricultural Implements For Class 8th CBSE/NCERT

Crop Production and Management: Classification Cultivation and Agricultural Implements For Class 8th CBSE/NCERT


All living things need food. Plants are capable of producing their food. Food for humans comes from either plants, animals, or both. A huge population requires a regular production of food, thus it must be managed and distributed properly.

CROP: When several identical plants are planted and produced in one location, this is referred to as a crop. For instance, When a field has a wheat crop, all the plants growing there are wheat plants.

Classification of Crops

Based on the season in which they are grown, crops can be categorized. India is a very large nation. Temperature, humidity, and rainfall all differ from one place to the next. The following categories of crops exist in India:

KHARIF CROPS: The crops grown from June to September during the rainy season are referred to as Kharif Crops. For instance, rice, corn, soybeans, groundnuts, cotton, etc.

RABI CROPS: The term “Rabi Crops” refers to crops that are grown throughout the winter months (October to March). Take wheat, gram, pea, mustard, and linseed as examples.

ZAID CROPS: The summertime crops are referred to as Zaid Crops. Mulberries, watermelons, cucumbers, gourds, bitter gourds, etc.

Basic Practices

 Cultivation of Crops involves the following activities:

1. Preparation of soil

2. Sowing

3. Adding manure and fertilizers

4. Irrigation

5. Protecting from weeds

6. Harvesting

7. Storage


This is the initial step in cultivating a crop. Tilling and levelling the soil are key soil preparation methods. This is accomplished with a plough and levellers. Ploughing or tiling refers to the process of loosing and turning the soil. A plough is used to do this.


Plough: This is used for tilling the ground, fertilizing crops, getting rid of weeds, scraping the ground, etc. A pair of bulls or other animals are used to pull this tool, which is composed of wood or iron.

Hoe: This straightforward tool is used to clear weeds from the soil and loosen it.

Cultivator: Today, a tractor-driven cultivator is used for ploughing. It saves time and labour.


Before sowing, high-quality seeds are chosen. Clean, nutritious, and of a nice variety, good quality seeds are those. If we are given seeds to choose from, we must put all of the seeds in a pail of water and thoroughly agitate them. Few seeds will float in the water, and the majority of the seeds will settle at the bottom of the bucket. Seeds with damage become hollow and lighter as a result. They float on water as a result.

Seed Drill

In modern times, tractors’ hoes are utilized to spread seeds. This device evenly distributes the seeds at the correct depths.


Manure and fertilizers are the chemicals that are given to the soil in the form of nutrients to support the healthy growth of plants. The soil provides the crop with mineral nutrients. The development of plants depends on these nutrients.

Manure: Manure is an organic material created when the plant or animal manure breaks down. Plant and animal manure is dumped by farmers in open pits where they then let it decay. Microorganisms are to blame for the degradation. Utilized as organic manure is the degraded material. Manure application enhances the soil’s water-retentive properties and texture. With all the nutrients, it restores the soil.

FERTILISERS: Chemical compounds rich in a certain nutrient are known as fertilizers. These salts are inorganic. Factory-produced fertilizers are available. Fertilizers include things like urea, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, potash, and NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium)

Farmers have been able to increase the output of crops including wheat, paddy, and maize thanks to the usage of fertilizers. However, overuse of fertilizers has reduced soil fertility. Additionally, fertilizers are becoming a cause of water pollution.


1. Organic manure is said to be superior to fertilizers. This is because it improves the soil’s ability to retain water.

2. It makes the soil permeable, facilitating easy gas exchange.

3. It enhances the population of beneficial bacteria.

4. It enhances the soil’s texture.

Differences between Fertiliser and Manure


1. The salt is inorganic.

2. Factory-based preparation is used.

3. It doesn’t give the soil any humus.

4. It contains a lot of plant nutrients.

5. The environment is harmed.


1. The substance is organic.

2. Field preparation is an option.

3. It gives the earth a lot of humus.

4. It’s substantially less nutrient-rich for plants.

5. It has no negative environmental effects


Irrigation is the process of providing crops with water at varying intervals. Depending on the crop, the soil, and the season, irrigation should be done at different times and more frequently.


Water for irrigation can be obtained through wells, tube wells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams, canals, etc.

Techniques for Irrigation

Conventional Techniques:

Several conventional irrigation techniques include

1. Moat (pulley-system)

2. Chain pump

3. Dhekli

4. Rahat (lever system)

Modern techniques: We can economically use irrigation by using modern techniques. The numerous contemporary irrigation techniques include:

Sprinkler system: This system works best on uneven terrain where there isn’t enough water. At regular intervals, the main pipeline is linked to perpendicular pipes with revolving nozzles on top. For sandy soil, this method is highly beneficial.

Drip system: In this method, the water drips down at the roots’ exact location. It is the ideal method for watering trees, gardens, and fruit plants. Water is not at all wasted. In areas with inadequate water availability, it is a blessing.


Weeds are unwelcome plants that inevitably sprout up alongside crops. They contend with crop plants for resources including water, food, space, and light, which has an impact on the crop’s development. Weeding: Weeding is the process of eradicating weeds from a field. You can manually remove weeds by hand-pulling them out or by uprooting them with a Khurpi or a seed drill. Weedicides, which include chemicals like 2, 4-D, are another method of controlling weeds. To kill the weeds, they are sprayed on the fields. The crops are not harmed by them. (2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is the full name of 2, 4-D.)

HARVESTING: Cutting a crop once it has reached maturity is referred to as harvesting. Either a harvester machine or a sickle (daraantee) is used to harvest in India.

THRESHING: Threshing is the process of separating the grain from the chaff. The grain seeds and chaff from the harvested crop are separated. This is done with the use of a device known as a combine, which combines a harvester with a thresher.

WINNOWING: This is the process of using wind or air blowing to separate a mixture’s heavier components from its lighter components. Farmers with modest land holdings use it to separate the grain from the chaff.

STORAGE: After threshing, the grains are dried outside. The dried grains are kept in godowns, which are cement halls with appropriate ventilation, in gunny bags. Farmers store dry grains in metal bins or jute bags. In silos and granaries, grains are stored on a large scale. To keep grains safe from pests and microbes while being stored in vast godowns, certain chemical treatments are needed.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY: Food is also obtained from animals that have been raised and given the appropriate care, food, and shelter. It’s known as animal husbandry.

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