Artificial vegetative propagation: Definition, Cutting, Layering, Grafting, and Advantages For Class 10th,11th, and NEET
Artificial vegetative propagation: Definition
Plants reproduce naturally through the formation of seeds (the result of sexual reproduction) and vegetative organs. This process of plant propagation is known as the natural technique.
The “Artificial method of vegetative propagation” is used when human intervention is involved in the vegetative organs that are used to multiply plants.
Artificial vegetative propagation technique
The term “Artificial method of vegetative propagation” refers to human-assisted vegetative organ multiplication of plants. This technique is used to commercially propagate priceless ornamental and horticultural species. There are three different kinds. Cutting, layering, and grafting
It is referred to as the “Artificial method of vegetative propagation” when plants are multiplied by vegetative organs with human assistance.
The artificial vegetative propagation technique of cutting. In this technique, the plant’s healthy branch is chosen and divided into multiple 8 to 10-inch portions. Then, they are buried in rich, moist soil. Cuttings that are below the soil generate surface roots, whereas cuttings that are above the soil develop surface buds that eventually become leafy shoots. This results in the development of a separate plant from each stem cutting. Like hibiscus, rose, sugar cane, and grapes.
Layering describes the formation of roots from a branch that is still connected to the stem. The term “Layer” refers to the branch that forms roots. The steps involved in layering are as follows:
• Pick a healthy branch from the target plant.
• Take away a 1- to a 2-inch-wide ring of bark.
• Keep the branch’s terminal portion free as you push this portion into the damp soil.
• After 30 days, the area where the bark was removed begins to grow roots.
• If you cut this off from the main plant, you can grow it as a separate plant.
Layering comes in the following varieties:
This technique involves choosing any healthy branch of a plant, removing 1 to 2 inches of bark, pushing the branch into the damp soil, and adding weight to keep the branch in place. After 30 days, the layered portion’s roots start to appear. This is cultivated as a separate plant after being cut off from the mother plant.
In this technique, a long, flexible branch is chosen, the bark is peeled off at various locations, the soil is added, and the plant is given regular irrigation. After a few days, the roots below form layered parts and grow in the exposed area. The branch is then divided into smaller sections and cultivated into separate plants.
Air layering (Gootee)
It is a traditional layering technique used by woody fruit plants. Using this technique, a woody branch of the desired plant is chosen, the outer 2 to 5 cm of the bark is removed, the area is sprayed with growth-stimulating hormones, thick plaster of grafting clay is applied, and the branch is covered in soil, fastened with a polythene cover, and continuously moistened. After 30 days, the layered section of the roots begins to form. After that, cut it below the bandage to remove it from the mother plant and nurture it as a distinct plant.
It is a technique for vegetative propagation that is artificial. With this technique, two separate plants, Stock and Scion, are joined together, coated in grafting clay, and grown as one plant.
On the branch of the rooted plant that serves as Stock, the branch chosen as Scion is permitted to grow. It is physically robust and gives scion food and water.
A) Splice grafting: In this technique, Stock and Scion are sliced at an angle. Scion is planted on stock, covered with grafting clay and given 30 days to grow before developing roots. The scion component of the plant is cut off from the mother plant and cultivated separately.
B) Wedge grafting: In this technique, Scion is given a “wedge form” and Stock is sliced into a V shape. Put these two together, cover with grafting clay, and give it 30 days to grow.
C) Whip grafting: This technique is used when the size of the stock and the scion are the same. Both Scion and Stock are cut at an angle. Scion is placed in stock in such a way that their cambial regions should touch. Grafting clay is applied to the exposed area and allowed to grow.
D) Inarching: In both Stock and Scion, a ring of bark that is between two and three inches long is removed using this technique. They are bound together at the sliced area, covered in grafting clay and given 30 days to grow. Later, plants will grow apart from their mothers.
E) Approach grafting:
1. The base of the rootstock plant has a thicker approach graft than the scion plant.
2. A narrow incision is formed in the rootstock plant’s bark that is 7 to 10 cm long by making two parallel cuts and removing the bark strip in the middle. The cut should be the same width as the scion that will be placed.
3. The scion plant’s stem needs to be cut long and shallow along one side, the same length as the rootstock plant’s cut, and deep enough to penetrate the bark and reach the wood.
4. The rootstock plant’s slot should have the cut surface of the scion branch inserted into it, firmly kept in place, and covered with grafting wax.
5. The rootstock and scion can be removed from above and below the graft, respectively, after the union has healed.
Advantages of the artificial vegetative propagation approach.
The following are some benefits of artificial propagation:
1. The genotype of newly created plants is unchanged from the parent plant.
2. A single plant can quickly produce a large number of plants.
3. The plant’s growth patterns can be adjusted to the surroundings.
4. Useful traits from two separate people can be blended to create new varieties.
5. Where seed output is low or plants don’t generate seeds, it helps to grow more plants.